Skip to main content

Full text of "Mythlogical Bonds Between East And West"

See other formats

w > CD 

m< OU_1 60808 >m 








Copyright 1938 by 

Mrs. Dorothea Chaplin, 


All rights reserved. 

Printed in Denmark, 

H. P. Hansens Bogtr., Kbhvn. 



The Boar in Britain 9 

The Serpent and other Tribes 24 

The Symbol of the Deer ... 45 

Indivisibility and Relativity 56 

Symbols and Customs 68 

Nomenclature 85 

Glimpses of Prehistoric Times 101 

Connecting Links 112 

Picts and their Antecedents 128 



Serpents in Margate Grotto 31,32 

Serpent design at Nigg 33 

Serpent Viking Ship 38 

Plaque 40 

Chakra 41 

Stave church at Borgund 42 

Rock Drawing on Traprain Law 46 

St. George, Rothenburg 64 

Gundestrup Bowl 82 

Rock Drawing on Traprain Law 131 

The Tomachar Stone 137 

Chart 144 

Chapter I. 


The Boar symbol, which appears in various places in the 
British Isles, seems to be closely related to St. Andrew, as a 
pre-Christian figure. In the coat-of-arms of St. Andrew's, Fife, 
the Patron Saint of Scotland appears with a Saltire, or Cross 
of St. Andrew in the background, but there is no sign of 
crucifixion. Below the Cross are a Tree and a Boar, neither of 
them Christian emblems, but both of them Aryan symbols. The 
Saltire of the Picts was in existence long before the days of 
Christianity, as were all forms of the Cross; and many ancient 
symbols found their way into crests and coats-of-arms at a very 
much later period. 

Boars make their appearance carved upon rock and stone, 
and as hog-backed tombstones, in different parts of Britain, 
although they are not very numerous. Examples are the pillar- 
stone, near Inverness, called the Knock-na-Gael Stone, on 
which there is a Boar, the carving on the rock-fortress at 
Dunadd, in Argyll, where the first Scottish king was crowned, 
and a Boar in Haddington; hog-backed tombstones on the 
Abercorn estate, near Edinburgh; on the Isle of Inchcolm in 
the Firth of Forth, and in the churchyard of St. Andrew's, 
Penrith, Cumberland. 

On the oldest inner wall of St. David's Cathedral, in South 
Wales, near the Shrine of St. Andrew, the first Patron Saint 
of St. David's, there is a carving of a Boar, and it is probably 
connected, mythologically, with this saint. 


Tracing the whereabouts of the symbolic Boar in Britain, 
we find the Croft of Muickan, or Pig's Place, near Glengairn, 
in the Braes o' Mar, Aberdeenshire. This Pig, or Boar must 
have been a sacred animal; a Boar legend is claimed both by 
Glen Muick and Glen Cluny; but, as the Gaelic word Muc 
means Boar it seems more probable that the legend originated 
in Glen Muick. The Muick is a small tributary of the Dee, and 
mountain peaks in the neighbourhood bear the same name. 

According to legend, a child was stolen by a wild boar, 
which became its foster-mother. When the child was eventually 
restored to its parents it received the name of Andrew, in 
consequence of this episode, and the MacAndrews in the neigh- 
bourhood claim descent from the Boar fosterling. It was an 
Aryan*) custom to derive the ancestry of a clan, or tribe 
from some deifical being, sometimes an animal. 

In Glengairn, or Glengardyne as it used to be called, there 
is a St. Ca's Well, but the origin of this saint is lost in the 
mists of antiquity. There is an Indian deity of the name of 
Ca, or Ka; and Ka is the first letter of the old Brahmi alpha- 
bet. Ka is Brahma, the Creator, first person of the Hindu 
trinity. He sometimes appears as Daksha who is the father of 
Muni, whose name is identical with the old name for St. 

The parish church at Anderby, in Lincolnshire, is very 
old, and is probably on a site which is still more ancient, the 
name of the place (the Borough of Ander, or Andrew) being 

St. Andrew's, Holborn, is so old that the origin of its 
foundation is unknown, and St. Andrew Undershaft, Cornhill, 
suggests the Fertility Cult with which St. Andrew is connected. 

Andersfield, in Somerset, is possibly reminiscent of pre- 
Christian times when certain fields were set apart for conse- 
cration. St. Andreas, a parish and village on the Isle of Man, 

*) Not used racially; the Eastern peoples class firstly by religion, and 
afterwards by race ; why should there have been an exception in 
the case of the Aryans? 


possesses a modern church, but which is dedicated to St. An- 
drew. The dedication, the name of the place and two Runic 
crosses in the churchyard testify to the antiquity of the site. 
There are also several tumuli in the neighbourhood. 

Pevensey Castle, in Sussex, stands on the site of Andriada, 
or Anderida, a Roman-British fortress; and the name suggests 
Andrew, or Ander. 

In the old Cornish language the word boar was bora, 
and so it may have been farther North and West. The Severn 
Bore is said to have been the Severn Boar. Boreham, in Essex, 
may derive its name from the word bora as the church is 
dedicated to St. Andrew,*) also Bor stall, in the hundred of 
Ashenden, Bucks, where there is a Boar legend. 

The following names may also be connected with this 
sacred animal, the surnames Burton, Burford and Bur- 
wood, or the Town of the Boar, the Ford of the Boar and 
the Wood of the Boar; and the place-names Burton-Pedwar- 
dine in the wapentake of Ashwardhurn, Lincolnshire, and Bur- 
ton-upon-Stather in the wapentake of Manley, in the same 
county, in both of which St. Andrew is the Patron Saint. 
Burton-in-Kendal, in the Lonsdale Ward, Westmoreland, was 
originally called Borton, demonstrating a philological transi- 
tion from O to U. It is said to be a contraction of 
Borough-town but what is there to support this conjecture? 
When compared to the other places with similar names it 
seems much more likely to have been Boartown. The river 
Ken separates Westmoreland from Lancashire, and, presum- 
ably, gave its name to the town of Kendal. It is worth no- 
ticing that there is a river Ken in India, near Allahabad. 

Borley, a township in the parish of Ombersley, Worcester- 
shire; Borley, in the union of Sudbury, Essex (the name said 
to mean Boar's Pasture ) ; and Berwick, a chapelry in the 
hundred of Londsdale, may follow in the same track of mytho- 
logical names, with Boscombe (St. Andrew), near Amesbury, 

*) The names of some of the churches mentioned are from Bell's Gaze- 
teer of England and Wales, published in 1837. 


Wilts, and Boscombe (St. Andrew), Hants, both of which 
may have been the Combe of the Boar. Burton-Overy (St. 
Andrew) in the hundred of Gartree, Leicestershire, with the 
others mentioned, may be associated with the Boar, and, pos- 
sibly, more besides. 

There is Barrow Hill in Derbyshire, which may have re- 
ceived its name from barrows, or perhaps from the Boar, as 
St. Andrew is the Patron Saint of the church. Bordesley, War- 
wickshire, has the same dedication; Burlingham (St. Andrew) 
(1287), Norfolk, and Burnham, Somerset (St. Andrew) 
(1309) may come from the same source. There are also the 
following names of united parishes to be considered. 

The village of Burwell, in the hundred of Staplehoe, in 
the county of Cambridge, contains the united parishes of St. 
Andrew and St. Mary, the latter probably succeeding Brigit 
as the Patron Saint. The name of the place suggests the Well 
of the Boar. Burstock, in the Bridport division of the county 
of Dorset, has a chapel dedicated to St. Andrew, and the name 
Burstock may also be derived from the Boar. Bridport, on 
the river Brit, is obviously named after Brite or Bride, and 
another example of the association of St. Andrew with St. 
Bride may be noticed in South Wales where the Bay of St. 
Bride is close to the Shrine of St. Andrew and the Boar carving 
in St. David's Cathedral. 

The Sanskrit name for the Boar is Baraha, or Varaha, 
and it looks as if certain surnames and geographical names 
had been derived, some of them from one form of spelling, 
and some from the other; those already reviewed, from Bar aha y 
and the following, from Varaha. 

The church of Bere Ferris, or Ferrers, in Devonshire, is 
dedicated to St. Andrew, and the parish takes its name from 
the Ferrers family, whose name in old records, is sometimes 
spelt Farer and Ferrar; and, probably, the surname Far- 
rar is of the same origin. The ancestry of this family must 
be exceptionally remote as more than one pre-Christian symbol 
is associated with it. The family is described in Lode's Peer- 
age as the ancient Barony of Ferrers of Chartley. The 


famous breed of Chartley cattle was their property, and, in 
common with a few other herds now almost extinct, is the old- 
est in Britain. 

There are Deer supporters to the Ferrers coat-of-arms, and 
the Deer, representing Narayana, is another pre-Christian 
symbol. The Horse-shoe, also of Aryan origin, as an emblem, 
is connected with this family, according to the author of The 
Ingoldsby Legends. A silver Horseshoe was due from every 
scion of royalty who rode across one of the manors of the Lords 

A situation were two rivers meet was considered of great 
allegorical importance in prehistoric times, and this occurs at 
Bere Ferris, where the Tavey and Tamar join at its southern- 
most angle. Other names which may have originated from 
Varaha are F erring (St. Andrew) in the rape of Arundel, 
Sussex, Fersjield (St. Andrew) Norfolk, and Firsby (St. An- 
drew) in the wapentake of Candleshoe, Lincolnshire. 

We might now take Andrew, the White Island, the Boar 
and Brigit in regard to their allegorical origin. We have plenty 
of evidence that Andrew was formerly Ander, as in An- 
dersfield and Anderton. In a small book in the church of 
St. Andrew Undershaft one may notice that the name was 
sometimes spelt Adr. It may have come originally from that 
of the Indian sage Narada, son of Muni, and have passed 
from Narada to Adr, Ander and Andrew. At St. 
David's we find Muni, the Boar and Andrew (Narada?). 
There is a similar possibility of contraction in the name of 
Narayana, Hindu King of Shells, with A' an, Keltic King of 
Shells; i.e., from the Sanskrit Narada to the Keltic Adr; 
Narayana to A'an; and other names such as Trivandrum to 
Tyndrum in Scotland, and pronounced with the Y long; 
Vibhandaka, an Indian Hunter, to Finn, the name of the 
Great Hunter of the Gael, with Rishyasringa, the name of the 
son of Vibhandaka, who was born of a Hind, to that of 

*) See The Spectre of Tappington. 


Ossian, the name of the son of Finn, whose mother was a 

Long before the time of the Roman invasions into Britain 
this island was known to the Cymric people as Y Wen Ynys, 
or the White Island. It was called Alba, or Alban, a name 
betokening Whiteness of colour. 

Narada is associated with a White Island, in the Mahab- 
harata, the second great Sanskrit epic. This White Island was 
visualized by Narada from Mt. Meru, in Central Asia. This 
holy mountain is in the Altai range, formerly called the Sumeru 
range. From thence issued forth the tenets of the Aryan, or 
Sumerian faith; and in later days the Hindu religion, the old- 
est extant at the present time, succeeded the Aryan religion. 

Narada, when visiting the old sage, Narayana, on the 
top of this mountain, had a vision induced through high 
Toga puissance in which he saw the White Island which he 
afterwards visited in company with other sages. It lay to the 
North-west and was thousands of miles away. According to 
Hindu allegory, this is the direction in which Narayana, or 
Vishnu, manifested himself in the Boar incarnation. 

In India the Boar is looked upon as a symbol of Fertility 
because, following Nature, he was the first agriculturist. Long 
before Man's appearance on this planet the Boar used his 
snout and tusk to plough and furrow the land in search of 
roots, and, incidentally, prepared it for the sowing of Seeds. 
Thus, the Boar became the emblem of the Fertility Cult. The 
Seeds, the Sower and the ground in which the Seeds are sown 
are viewed from both a mental and a physical standpoint. 
The Fertility Cult includes the preparation of the Mind as 
well as the material ground, and the mental soil must also 
be fertile if Seeds of Thought are to produce good results, 
otherwise the Seeds will be wasted. 

For the information of those who are not familiar with 
Hindu mythology it is necessary to explain that, in his first 
incarnation, Vishnu appeared as a Fish because Water was 

*) Santi Parva of the Mahdbhdrata. 


here before Land. Vishnu made his second appearance as a 
Tortoise, or Turtle because this animal lives partly in the 
Water, and partly on Land. In his third incarnation Vishnu 
became a Boar, an animal which lives entirely on Land. There 
were more incarnations, but not those which concern the 
present subjects. 

As regards the White Island (Sveta Dwipa) Narada seems 
to have been a delegate of Narayana. After he had been vouch- 
safed a view of the island he went there at the behest of 

Brigit, or Brite was revered throughout the British Isles, 
and beyond them long before she became a Christian saint; 
she was a representation of the great Aryan Mother as shown 
by her name. Brite is a form of Bhrati, or Bharati, and coincides 
in many respects with Sarasvati, of whom Bharati is a form. 
Bharati is mentioned in the Vedas. 

The festal day of Brigit in the Christian Calendar is the 
first of February, and the Indian Bharati is also worshipped 
at this time, in accordance with the movements of the Moon. 
Sarasvati is one of the two wives of Vishnu, and represents 
the Mind of the Mother Goddess. 

Guinevere, wife of King Arthur, is the White Apparition; 
she and St. Bee, or Bega seem to be the same character in 
rather different forms, and both of them to be Sarasvati in 
the ulterior background. St. Bee, Be Find or Bo Find was the 
White Cow in pre-Christian Britain, and the White Cow is 
Sarasvati ! 

St. Andrew was known as Merrie Andrew in the Middle 
Ages; he was associated with the Maypole dances outside the 
Church of St. Andrew Undershaft, and the Undershaft was 
the Maypole. Narada, also, has characteristics displaying Merri- 
ment, and is fond of playing practical jokes, although a great 

The name of Muni may possibly be traced in the place- 
name Munslow in Shropshire. It is also the name of a 
hundred of this country. The parish of Munslow has a church 
dedicated to St. Michael, who is also the Patron Saint of Mac- 


clesfield, in Cheshire, (the Field of Michael). 

In Sanskrit genealogy not only is Narada a son of Muni, 
but also Makal. Mahakala, or Makal is a form of Yama, who 
is god of Death, and also one of the Adit y as or component 
parts of the Sun. The personal feast of Yama takes place in 
the month Asvin (Sept: Oct:). It is held in honour of Kali, 
or Mahakali, the female form of Mahakala, and the time of 
year accords with Michaelmas, the Feast of St. Michael. Kali, 
or Cali is the presiding deity of Calcutta, and represents Night; 
her festival takes place at Midnight. It must be she who ap- 
pears with a Black face, or in whose honour some of the Ferti- 
lity celebrations in Europe are held, in which the men blacken 
their faces. 

St. Michael is well to the fore in Brittany. A tumulus 
bearing the name of St. Michel shows the pre-Christian origin 
of this saint; the tumulus is a large one. Mt. Michel was 
formerly called Tumba. The Welsh word for a sacred pillar 
is Twmpath, and in Prakrit, the popular language of the 
Hindus, at the time when Sanskrit was spoken, it was Thumba, 
facts which may, or may not show a linguistic connection. 

St. Michel of Brittany was formerly known as Mekel. Before 
the construction of the main road between Carnac and Trinite- 
sur-Mer the passage-way crossed the stream at the foot of the 
tumulus. It was closed by a barrier of wood; and, according 
to tradition, Paotr St. Mekel, himself, stood there during the 
night, and mounted the backs of late-comers who were making 
their way home in either direction. But, as a rule, Mekel was 
not visible. Why should it be St. Michael who concerns him- 
self with the delinquencies of late home-comers? Because he 
is Time, the Reaper! 

Makal, or Mahakala is Siva, third person of the Hindu 
trinity, and the great Reaper who carries the Scythe of Time. 
Mahakala is called the Master of Yama. He is Rudra, the 
terrible Storm-god, and the Vedic form of Siva. 

The usual sacred spring is to be found at the foot of the 
tumulus, and it bears the name of St. Michael's Fountain. On 
the top is a chapel which probably replaced a shrine dedicated 


to the original Mekel, god of the Winds. He is still venerated 
in the form of St. Michel by the fisher-folk; and the women 
go to the chapel to pray for favourable winds when their hus- 
bands and sons are at sea. When these women are dusting 
the church they push the dust in the direction from which 
they wish the winds to blow. 

The fish-wives and their men-folk of Newhaven, Mussel- 
burgh and Cockenzie, near Edinburgh, hold their annual 
festival at Michaelmas; and, no doubt, their merry-making 
was once in honour of Mahakala, or Kali, as with the fishers 
in Brittany. 

Makal, as Yama, takes on a legal aspect in an allegorical 
sense. Yama is Lord of Souls, and functions through Chitra 
Gupta as Judge of the Dead. The representation of St. Michael 
in this capacity may be seen in St. Martin's Church, Ruislip, 
Middlesex, where this saint is represented in a wall-painting, 
weighing a Soul; and, in Westminster Abbey, on the shrine 
of Edward, the Confessor, St. Michael may also be seen weigh- 
ing a Soul, while the Devil stands by, and places his foot on 
the scales in order to cause them to balance unfavourably for 
the Soul! 

Apparently, Yama, or Saman was worshipped in Ireland 
under the name of Samhain. The Feast of Saman is still 
observed in Edinburgh at the time of All Hallows. The wor- 
ship of the Manes evidently took place here in prehistoric 
times in the same zodiacal month (Oct: Nov:) as the Feast 
of the Manes in India, although, in Scotland, the origin of 
the festival has long since been forgotten. The Writers to His 
Majesty's Signet, or Scribes as they used to be called, seem 
to be closely connected with Saman, and it is possible that the 
festival is theirs in view of the fact that Saman is Mahakala, 
an allegorical Judge! 

The Writers of the legal profession in Edinburgh seem to 
have been a caste in former days, as they wear a special dress 
for royal and civic functions, and take their part as a distinct 
body of citizens on these occasions. It is worthy of note that 

Dorothea Chaplin 


the Kayashtha, or Scribe caste of Hindu India claim descent 
from Yama, or Saman! 

It seems possible that Muni, the mother of Makal and 
Narada of the Aryans, became in Keltic realms the mother 
of Mekel and Ander. 

St. Michael was known as Micheil among the early Kelts, 
and there were shrines in his honour on the West coast of 
Scotland, in the Hebridean Isles and also in Alaska. 

Mon is the Mother of Wales, and it does not seem un- 
reasonable to assume that Mon is Muni, mother of the Deva- 
Gandharva Narada, Leader of the Heavenly Musicians! 

Mon, or Mona gave her name to the Isle of Anglesey off 
the Welsh coast, and Mon is a prefix to many place-names 
in the British Isles, nearly all of which are distinguished by 
marks of great antiquity, and frequently of ecclesiastical 

The Sanskrit word Muni also means sage, and Narada, 
himself, is a Muni. From this may have arisen the English 
monk. Additional letters often creep into words in this 
country, and the K may have been acquired in this con- 
nection as in the place-name Monkton, which is pronounced 
locally Munton. 

Near St. David's is the Well of St. Non, the mother of 
David, or Dewi Sant, and it may be that both Monk and 
Nun issued from this seat of ecclesiastical learning. 

The place-names with the prefix Mon may refer, either 
to Muni, as the deifical personage of that name, or to sages. 
Monymusk and Pittenweem were sub-priories under the Priory 
of St. Andrew's, and here again we find the name Muni asso- 
ciated with Ander, or Andrew. 

Loch Monivaird, in Perthshire, covers about thirty acres; 
and the parish of Monivaird contains the varied remains of 
remote antiquity . Monifieth is near the Gar-hills, where 
there are a number of cairns; and other examples of names 
with this prefix are Monikie, in Angus (Forfar), and Moni- 
mail, in Fife; also Monyash, in Derbyshire, where many relics 
of prehistoric times are still in being. 


Monaquillan, in Tipperary, and Monivea, in Galway, are 
Irish examples. Monivea may be compared to Moniaive, in 
Galloway, in the South-west corner of Scotland. There is also 
the surname Galloway to compare with these. 

Kilmun, in Argyll, seems allied to these in nomenclature, 
and to have been a shrine to Muni. 

That the White Island is Britain has already been suggested 
in a book written some fifty years ago, by Colonel Wilford; 
but so much having been discovered since then, the atmosphere 
should be clearer now for investigations into this subject. 

In the ancient literature of India, probably containing still 
more ancient matter, facts are clothed hi mythological form, 
as scholars have been realizing of late. It is possible that, in 
this case, the writer is describing in language which appears 
to us fantastic, a series of incidents which actually took place 
although the characters mentioned may be allegorical, or 

In the Mahdbharata an account of the White Island is 
given to King Yudhishthira by Bhishma, as having happened 
so long ago that it had been almost forgotten even in that 
prtf-Christian era. 

The Welsh bard Taliessin, writes thus of Britain: 

A numerous race, fierce they were called, 
First colonized thee, Britannia, Chief of Isles. 

Here Brigit, Brite or Britannia seems to take the form of 
the Mother Goddess, Durga, as she holds her Trident. As is 
not at all an uncommon situation in mythological times, the 
Island of Britain becomes a personality, none other than Brigit, 
or Britannia! Taliessin definitely alludes to Britannia (Brite) 
as an island; who can she be but the White Island? Brite, the 
original form of Brigit in the British Isles, apparently, is iden- 
tical with Bharati (Sarasvati), the White Goddess of the 

King Arthur and Guinevere are said to have been married 
at Camelford, in Cornwall, and there is also their close asso- 


elation with Camelot to be taken into consideration. In the 
earliest versions relating to Arthur, the Arthurian Chronicles, 
and Layamon's Brut, these and other mythic characters na- 
turally exhibit more of their origin than in the later ones. 

The Campbells are The Seed of Diarmid of the Boar, 
and the crest of the Marquess of Breadalbane, one of the 
Campbell chiefs, consists of the Head of the symbolic Boar. 
This animal was sacred in Argyll, part of the Campbell 
country, and also in Lindisfarne, where it might not be men- 
tioned on account of its sanctity. 

Members of the Clan Campbell are Children of the Sun; 
their name in Gaelic is Kammell, and it looks as if there might 
be some legendary connection with Arthur and the localities 
associated with him, but only in those areas where he partakes 
more of the character of the Sun than of the Moon. 

The river Camel in Cornwall was also called Cambula, 
introducing a B, as in the case of the name Campbell, 
also of Cambus Kenneth formerly Camus Kenneth and 
possibly of Ombersley,*) the Lea of Uma (Gauri, or Durga, 
second wife of Siva). 

Cademuir, in the Lowlands of Scotland, near the Tweed, 
is the site of a battle in which King Arthur is supposed to have 
been engaged, and Cadbury Hill, in Somerset, may be com- 
pared to it, philologically. This old British camp was formerly 
known as Cadeberie, and on the top of it is King Arthur's 

According to tradition, Merlin is buried under a Thorn- 
tree where Tweed and Powsail meet ; and it was Merlin who 
built the hall of Camelot for Arthur which is believed to have 
been on Cadbury Hill, Somersetshire, from which the village 
of Queen Camel is not far distant. 

It is not unlikely that Arthur, sometimes called Ardar, is 
Aditya (Vishnu), with two wives, Queen Camel (Lakshmi) 
and Guinevere (Sarasvati). 

Camelot is spelt Camalat and Kamalat by Leland 

*) See p. 11. 


and other writers; and on Elizabethan maps it appears as 
Camalleck, showing that formerly it was sometimes spelt 
with a K. Surely Queen Camel must be Kamala, who. is 
Lakshmi, one of the two chief aspects of the Mother Goddess. 
Lakshmi represents her Outward form, and Sarasvati, the In- 
tellectual aspect. The Sanskrit name Kamala sometimes takes 
the form of Kamalatmika, which may b^ compared to the 
English forms, Kamalat and Camalleck. 

Arthur's Knights of the Round Table may be the Twelve 
Months of the Year, although their number varies. Vishnu 
comprises the Twelve Adityas in his one allegorical person; 
he does not make a thirteenth figure although, in addition to 
forming the Whole, he is also one of the Twelve. 

The Lotus is one of the symbols of Narayana (Vishnu); 
and one may see it in Winchester Castle, and in a window of 
the Bodleian Library at Oxford. The design in the centre, 
supposed to be a Rose, is more like a Water-plant, and the 
transverse lines in the middle of it suggest the mathematical 
elaboration of the Indian conventional Lotus, or Chakra of 
Sree, or Lakshmi. The Round Table, in this form, dates from 
about the reign of Henry, the Eighth, and thus the Tudor 
Rose probably supplanted the Lotus as an emblem. 

It is worthy of note that, in the South-west of Scotland, 
there is a sheet of water which is sometimes called Loch Ar- 
thur, and sometimes, the Lotus Loch ! Here is Arthur with the 
Lotus! There are many more mythological and linguistic links 
between India, America and the British Isles, as I hope to 

In regard to Indian matters I have had the assistance of 
Mr. Akhilachandra Palit of Cooch Behar. This scholar of the 
Kayashtha Sabha, or All-India Association for Men of the 
Writer Caste, has put at my disposal the fruits of his own 
extensive research and study in relation to the Aryan system 
of culture and religion in the East, and its attendant mytho- 
logy, as found in the original Sanskrit text. 

The realm of Nature, as seen in this allegorical setting, 
is the female aspect of Brahma, or Brahman, the One and 


only God; she is Mahamaya, the Great Mother, who reveals 
herself in many forms. All the lesser goddess forms are con- 
tained in her, and she is the mother of the trinity (the Family) . 

The trinity of the Hindus consists of Brahma, the Creator, 
Vishnu and Siva. Brahma, the Creator, is distinguished from 
the One, Supreme Being by an accent over the last letter of 
his name. He, also, assumes the shape of the Boar. Bromfield, 
Bromley and many other British place-names have originated 
from this mythic character. 

Vishnu, the second person, is the great being who resides 
in the Sun; and Siva, the third person, is the Sky-god, or 
Heaven Father. All the numerous deities of the Hindu pan- 
theon are contained in one or other of these three. The trinity 
is not the Godhead, although contained in It. Hinduism is 
Monotheistic, under a plurality of forms. 

Sanskrit literature provides the only key which fits the lock 
and opens the door, at least partially, disclosing the meaning 
of many of the Pictish symbols, such as the Bull, the Mirror 
and the Disc of the Sun on Scottish rocks; it also helps to ex- 
plain the actions of symbolic personages. The Sun's Disc ap- 
pears with the Boar on the Knock-na-Gael Stone, and at 
Dunadd, as in countless instances in British symbolism. 

In common with other symbols, that of the Boar forms a 
link between Keltic Aryans and Indian Aryans, by means of 
an American bridge, which is supported by tradition from 
both American Indians, and Indians of India. 

St. Michael, in his form of Micheil, shows definite proof 
of pre-Christian origin by the shrines which were dedicated 
to him in the West of Scotland, and in Alaska. Little doubt 
can exist but that the various Pictish symbols and mythic 
figures were introduced into the British Isles by some of the 
very early tribes professing the Aryan faith, and with the 
Druids as their priests. 

Bur ford Bridge (the Ford of the Boar), at the foot of Box 
Hill in Surrey, is not far from the village of Mickleham where 
the church is dedicated to St. Michael (Makal). 

The connection of Micheil and Ander, or Michael and 


Andrew, with the Boar is evident here, and still more so at 
St. David's with its obvious Aryan beliefs. 

The carving of the Boar (Bar aha) is seen near the Shrine 
of St. Andrew (Narada}, in the town formerly known as Muni, 
the name of the mother of Narada and Makal, near the Bay 
of St. Bride (Bharati), and situated in the White Island 
(Sveta Dwipa), in a North-westerly direction as seen by the 
sage Narada from Mt. Meru. Narada, at the bidding of Na- 
rayana, allegorically or otherwise, went to the White Island, 
the region in which Narayana (Vishnu) manifested himself 
as the Boar. 

What other explanation can be given for this sequence 
of events, as related in Sanskrit literature, and their reflection 
in Britain? 

Chapter 2. 


The religious community of the Aryans, or Sumerians, with 
their head-quarters on the holy Mt. Meru in the range of 
mountains, formerly called Sumeru, now called Altai, seem 
to have included many nationalities. 

The religion which continues to-day in the form of Hin- 
duism reverts to the Sanskrit Rig Veda as its most ancient 
book, and which may be the oldest book in the world. Ortho- 
dox Indian scholars in their own region, place the Vedas at a 
much earlier date than do Europeans, but as the history of 
the Hindu recedes into a past infinitely longer than ours, it is 
not an easy matter to be precise with dates. 

The contents of the Vedas, and of the epics probably con- 
tain matter which is much older than the books themselves, 
even if these are more ancient than the period assigned to 
them by European scholars. The Atharva Veda is thought 
to be older in its subject-matter than even the Rig Veda. It is 
concerned with the details of ritual, much of which continues 
among us at the present day; it gives elaborate descriptions of 
the Chakra, for instance, a symbol which is found throughout 

During the Bronze Age, and possibly earlier, the Hindus 
from Northern India dominated a large portion of the globe, 
and were politically powerful. In those days accounts of col- 
onizations and happenings of all kinds were handed down by 
word of mouth by people with scientifically trained and stu- 


pendous memories, and when they appeared in Sanskrit litera- 
ture, they were clothed in mythological garb. 

The Chart at the end of the book gives a rough idea of 
the world as they saw it. Followers of the Aryan religion, or 
culture, spread far and wide. These beliefs pervaded America 
in the form of Shamanism, and possibly in other forms as well. 

The Aryan peoples have left traces of themselves in the 
various legends and mythic characters in Keltic and other 
regions; and although they may have altered considerably in 
some cases, nevertheless, they seem to have retained many of 
their pristine characteristics. 

The people of the Sidh and the Gandharvas of India wor- 
shipped Soma, or Can, the Moon-god, as their special deity. 

Bali, or Vali is King of the Netherworld (Patala), and 
appears to link together India and Great Britain by a route 
across America, which stands roughly in relationship to India 
as the Netherworld, or Antipodes. Britain is called the Island 
of Bali, and Bali seems to be Balor, a Fomorian, or god of 
Night. He is a grandson of Indu; and, in Hindustan, Indu is 
a name for the Moon-god. Bali or Balor sometimes appears to 
be a form of Kian, or Can, the Moon-god, although he is 
generally regarded as a Sun-god. It may be that he eloped with 
Ethne (Tara). If this be the mythological case in the British 
Isles, it would coincide with the Indian tale, in the Matsya 
Purana, in which Can, the Moon-god, elopes with Tara. The 
Pillar of Bal-nath in the State of Rajputana, is dedicated, not 
to Vishnu, the Sun, but to Siva, the Moon-god, and represents 
the Siva linga. 

Budh, the beautiful son of Can, or Soma, and Tara, is the 
planet Mercury; and, in at least some respects, Lugh (with 
the G pronounced) resembles Budh; Lugfr is the son of 
Ethne and Kian of the Kelts. 

By following the tracks from Asia to America, and from 
thence to Britain by the pathway of tradition there is much 
to be considered in regard to Indo-Keltic affinity. 

Alexander von Humboldt expressed the opinion that there 
may have been an empire in the North of America between 


the latitudes 36 and 42 composed of people in an advanced 
state of civilization, superior to that of the Mongols, or Tartars, 
of Central Asia, and he thought that the founding of this em- 
pire preceded the Mongolian invasion.*) 

The invaders made their way with great difficulty**) across 
the narrow strip of land which existed at that time between 
the two continents, Asia and America. This land-passage is 
now under the water of the Behring Straits, but to no great 
depth even at the present time. 

The first person to lead an expedition to the Netherworld 
from Asia may have been Sagara, King of Ayodhya (Oudh), 
an ancestor of Rama, of the Ramdyana. Sagara is recorded as 
having dug the ocean, with his sixty thousand sons. 

Many, possibly hundreds of years later, Ravana, King of 
Lanka, set forth on a journey of military adventure, in which 
he used aeroplanes!***) 

Valmiki, author of the Ramayana, tells how Ravana visited 
Patala, where he found Daityas and Serpents already estab- 
lished in splendid cities which might well answer to some of 
the buried cities of America. 

The Daityas were of huge stature, and the Fomorians of 
Britain correspond to them in this respect, and also as Water- 
gods. The Daityas, in so far as they were human, must have 
been closely associated with the Serpents in their peregrinations 
into new territory. Ravana, to whichsoever set of people he be- 
longed, was also very big. 

When on these expeditions Ravana took with him, as one 
of his generals, Prahasta; and this officer is mentioned later 
on in connection with the great struggle against Rama, as 
carrying a Serpent standard. 

The Nagas, who included the Serpents, evidently played 
a conspicuous part in ancient history. 

The Rakshas, or Rakshasas, when outside the realm of 

*) ^Narratives, vi., 323 324. 

**) According to the Kich6 MS.; see Tylor's Early History of Man- 
***) See Matter, Myth and Spirits. 


mythology, may have been a lesser tribe contained within a 
larger one. The Ramayana relates how the Rakshas, under 
Ravana, found their way to Patala; and how when King Ra- 
vana arrived in the city governed by Vasuki, or Sesha, he 
brought the Serpents under subjections Sesha of India is a 
king, or deity of the Serpents in the Netherworld, and there- 
fore it looks as if Sesha (popularly Shesha) were the forerun- 
ner of the numerous Shoshonee, or Snake tribes of North 

Rasatala, one of the seven divisions of Patala, was the 
abode of Serpents and Asuras, and was under the rule of 
Bali, Sesha and other chief s. Bali, in allegorical or human 
form, took up his residence in Patala. He seems to have gone 
to the Antipodes (America) after it had been occupied for 
many centuries by Aryans like himself; he then appears to have 
gone from thence to Britain, the Island of Bali, Beli or Bel. 
TheNagas, when recognized as Snake tribes,*) seem to have 
inhabited North and South Dakota, Idaho, Ohio and Wyom- 
ing, with the Snake, or Lewis River running through their 
huge territory. 

The Horned Serpent was the god of the Muskhogean 
Confederacy in America, and of its descendants, the Choc- 
taws, Cherokees and Creeks, etc. The Creeks had a Fire cere- 
mony which they called by the name of Pushtika, a word com- 
posed of two Sanskrit syllables! 

There are many mounds in America shaped in the form 
of a Serpent, especially in the State of Ohio, the name of 
which may have emanated from the Sanskrit word A hi, a 

A fort was discovered in Ohio which has an earthen enclo- 
sure, terminating in two mounds, with a paved way between 

Taking everything into consideration one does not seem 
to be propounding a very nebulous theory if one suggests that 
the Aztecs of Mexico derived their name from Astika of. India. 

*) See the Encyclopaedia Britannica for the Snake Tribes in America. 


Mr. Bhattacharya, the author of Indian Images, speaks of 
a statue of Manasa holding a child in her lap, and suggests 
that the child is Astika; Manasa is the same deity "as Nagamata, 
mother of the Nagas; and Astika is the nephew of Vasuki, 
King of the Naga tribes in the Netherworld. The words 
Astika and Swastika have terminating syllables which 
correspond precisely with the last syllable of Pushtika, the 
name of the Fire ceremony of the American Indian Creeks. 

It is recorded of Astika that he had great gravity and 
intelligence, and was reared in the palace of the Snakes. This 
leads one to a consideration as to whether Astika may not have 
been a hero, or god of the Aztecs of America, and the origina- 
tor of their name. There are more points stressing this possi- 

Mr. Bhattacharya writes: She (Manasa) is flanked with a 
canopy formed by seven hoods of cobras. 'Manasa' means 
'mindborn'; it is also a name for the Cactus-plant. This plant 
is useful in curing snake-bites, ad a certain kind, called Phani- 
Manasa, has the appearance of a cluster of expanded hoods of 
cobras, which may explain the origin of this goddess. 

It is rather a strange coincidence, if coincidence it be, that 
the coat-of-arms of Mexico should include an Eagle holding 
a Serpent in its mouth; and that there should be a Cactus- 
plant on these armorial bearings. It is on record in India that 
the Eagle destroyed the Serpent! 

When King Janamejaya was persecuting the Serpents in 
Northern India, and their complete extermination was in view, 
a Hindu sage called Astika, induced him to forego his activi- 
ties against the Nagas. The name Aztec suggests a corrup- 
tion of Astika, and, under these circumstances, it does not 
seem improbable that the Snake Aztecs of Mexico derived 
their name from the Serpent Astika of India. 

The sect of Shamanism, the cult of Yama, or Saman, may 
still be traced among the Siwash Indians of America. They 
regard Mt. Takhoma, in the State of Washington, as sacred. 
The name of this mountain is composed of two syllables, the 
last is Sanskrit; but the first is of doubtful origin, possibly 


Sanskrit. Tak is the first syllable of Takshasila, the stone fort 
of the Naga chief, Takshaka, in Northern India. Homa is 
found as the termination to another American geographical 
name, that of Oklahoma. Homa is a sacrificial rite. 

Soma is the drink offered to the Aryan gods. Takhoma 
is said to mean the mountain-breast of Milkwhite Waters; 
and, in India the divine beverage Soma is described as the 
juice of a milky climbing plant. This mountain is now known 
as Mt. Tacoma, or Mt. Rainier. 

Brigit, a Serpent deity, worshipped at Candlemas, the 
festive season of Soma, or Chandra, the Moon-god, is as- 
sociated with the Dandelion, containing a milky substance. 

In addition to these signs of Sanskrit nomenclature in 
America there is the name of the Narada Waterfall on the 
holy mountain of Takhoma. The sage Narada of India, it will 
be remembered, was a Gandharva, and Soma was the special 
deity of the Gandharvas!*) 

The British dominion of Canada bears a Sanskrit name, 
and is known in Germany as Kanada. A sage in India of the 
name of Kanada founded a School of Philosophy in which 
he set forth the atomic theory. 

Yama, or Saman is depicted in gruesome shape, as an 
Alaskan god, in a model which may be seen in the State Mu- 
seum of Berlin; and we may recall that there were shrines to 
Micheil in Alaska, and that Micheil is manifestly Mahakala 

Kubera, or Kuvera, the Hindu god of Riches, is Chief of 
the Yakshas, who milked the earth, and apparently crossed 
the seas in order to facilitate the operation. Their particular 
deity was also Soma, the Moon-god.*) The territory of Kuvera 
is in the North (of America?). Kuvera was turned out of 
Lanka by his half-brother, Ravana, who took possession of it; 
and Kuvera seems to have sought refuge elsewhere, and trea- 
sure in other lands. Alaka, the capital of Kuvera, suggests the 

*) See Indian Images. 


name of the gold-seekers country of Alaska on the North-west 
coast of North America, where the cult of Shamanism was 
in vogue. 

One of the titles of Kuvera is Nidhipa, i. e., Protector of 
Nidhis (Riches), and when explorers in India were looking for 
treasure they worshipped Kuvera, who has exhaustless wealth 
in the form of gold. The gold is kept in a jar guarded by 

Nagas are said to be treasure-hiders, that some of them 
were treasure-seekers who discovered the gold mines of Alaska, 
does not seem to be quite beyond the range of probability, 
especially when the fact is taken into account that traces of 
their deities are to be found in that region. 

Kuvera is Pingala, and Pingala may have found a Keltic 
counterpart in Fingal of the British Isles. There are at least 
two Serpent Mounds in Scotland, one at Largs, in Ayrshire, 
and another, and better known one near Loch Nell, in Argyll; 
the latter is in the parish of Kilbride (the Shrine of Bride). 
This neighbourhood is associated with Fingal, King of Shells, 
who presides over a well near the Serpent Mound, and is the 
possessor of the famous Gave, near lona. 

There are many relics of the Serpent emblem in Britain. 
The remains of the great shrine at Avebury, in Wiltshire, proves 
it to have been one of the largest Serpent temples in the 
world, rivalling some of the ancient structures in America. 
The shape of the Serpent at Avebury has been clearly demon- 
strated by Stukeley. 

The large temple at Carnac in Brittany is supposed to re- 
present the convolutions of a Serpent; and Brittany probably 
received its name from Brite, or Bride, a Serpent deity. 

The wonderful grotto at Margate is serpentine in form, 
and is evidently of great antiquity. It has attracted the at- 
tention of orientalists on account of the symbolic shell orna- 
mentation which decorates the walls, and which is accomplish- 
ed so skilfully that it could not be reproduced in these days. 

At the entrance to the Grotto a tiny figure was to be seen 
not long ago. It sat in a contemplative attitude, and held a 


Cup. In the interior, and on what is called the Snake panel, 
there is this pattern of Two Serpents; and the Two Serpents 

Serpents in Margate Grotto. 

may be seen on a bracket below the central oriel window over 
the doorway of the exceedingly old Star Inn at Alfriston, in 

There are two places in Scotland of the name of Nigg, 


one in Kincardineshire, adjoining Aberdeen, on the Bay of 
Nigg, the other in Ross-shire, and both show signs of great age. 

Serpents in Margate Grotto. 

The Kincardine Nigg has the ancient chapel of St. Fittick; 
and at Nigg, in Ross-shire, there is a cross on which are incised 
mythological serpentine forms. This remarkable stone is des- 
cribed as One of the most graceful of the Pictish obelisks. 
Chandwick, Nigg, may be named after the Moon-god, Chand, 


or Can. The illustration below of a carving at Chandwick is 
a wonderful specimen of Keltic ornamentation with intricate 
designs, combining Serpents and Dragons. 

Serpent design at Nigg. 

The name Nigg, as also that of Nignol in Brittany, may 
have originated from Naga, or from JVagi, a Lady Serpent. 

The emblems of the Serpent and Dragon are identical as 
regards symbolism; and they are the heritage of the Nagas, 
and the descendants of the Nagas. 

A dragonesque emblem was found in the Orkney Is- 
lands (Dorkaine), part of the mythic kingdom of King Lot, 
or Loth, father of the Serpent deity, Guchulinn. He, himself, 
may be identical with Budh, the Dragon of Wisdom; and 
Cuchulinn a form of Peredur, the Indian Pururava, son of 
Budh, or Budha. 

The Swastika emblem, found on burial urns in the Keltic 
regions of Europe, and in America, testifies to the imprint 
of Naga footsteps; and also to the fact that, in at least some 
respects, their religion was Aryan. The urns which have been 
discovered with this mark upon them are among the most 

Drrnfh*fl fhanlin 


definite signs of the presence of tribes following some form of 
Aryanism. Cremation is one of the four cardinal tenets of the 
Hindu religion, successor to the Aryan religion. 

The Swastika is one of the oldest symbols in the world, 
if not actually the oldest; and it is the emblem of the Nagas. 
Reference to this symbol is found in Sanskrit literature; and 
it is probable that the Saltire of the Picts, and the crossed 
Swords of the Scottish Sword Dance are founded upon the 

The Serpentine in Hyde Park is suggestive of the Nagas. 
At the Eastern end is the bridge overlooking a small pool where 
the water begins to flow underground. Here there are some 
springs, and immediately below the parapet the ground begins 
to slope. At the foot of this incline is a large stone, or monolith 
affording evidence of Druidic association in the past. 

Through a grant of Edward, the Confessor, there is a con- 
necting link with Westminster Abbey, but there may have been 
communication between the springs and the grounds of the 
present abbey through the working of a Druidical settlement 
at Westminster long before this date. 

Between Sheffield and Glossop is the Snake Pass. The chief 
deity of the Algonkin Indians is Glooskap (Glossop?) ; and he 
is equated with Votan, the Snake deity of America who makes 
the assertion that he is a Serpent of the line of Chan,*) pre- 
sumably Can, the Moon-god. When Votan makes this an- 
nouncement he seems to be explaining that he is of the Serpent 
race, so prominent in the Northern states, and that he comes 
of the line of Can, or Chandra, the lunar deity. 

The Algonkins worship the Great White Hare, the Moon. 
Pillar-stones in the British Isles were often occupied by deifical 
personages, as in India. These formed little shrines, and it may 
be noticed that there are several Hare-stones in Britain. One 
of these marks the division between the parishes of Cruden 
and Peterhead. Cruden was part of a Pictish kingdom, and 
had a Druidic temple. 

*) See the Popul Vuh. 


Very important as regards prehistoric research is the dis- 
covery made by Mr. Ludovic Mann and others as recounted 
in the Times (19. 9. 38, and previously) of a Serpent 
temple at Knappers, near Kilbowie, not far from Glasgow. 
The name Knappers may be connected with Knapdale, 
and with the Ball-game played in Pembrokeshire under the 
name of Knappen. The find at Knappers -is a wooden struc- 
ture, said to be the finest prehistoric building in wood yet 
discovered. The vessels found in this temple belong to the 
Stone Age and the succeeding Bronze Age. The temple con- 
tains a large number of Serpentine figures! 

The Sanskrit word Sarpa (pronounced somewhat like 
serpa) gives the impression that the English word serpent 
is derived from it. The old Cornish word for Serpent was 
Sarf; F and P being interchangeable, this produces 
Sarp, is it not a lingual bridge between the two? 

Near Wiesbaden, in Germany, and where there are traces 
of the Kelts, there is a place called Schlangenbad, or the Bath 
of the Snakes; these may have been human Snakes, as there 
are signs of prehistoric people in the neighbourhood. 

The Sun-god, Lugh, otherwise Lot, King of Lothian, who 
is also the planet Mercury resembles Budh (Mercury) of India, 
as Lugh is god of the manifold Sciences, and both represent 
the Dragon of Wisdom. Budha is quite distinct from Buddha, 
the ninth incarnation of Vishnu, and the founder of Buddhism, 
and is very much older. 

Cuchulinn, or Kukil Can is the Feathered Serpent, and a 
son, or part of Lugh. Sometimes he appears to be identical 
with Eochu, but as a Serpent deity he seems to be more close- 
ly connected with Lugh. 

The Feathered Serpent who appears in Mexico and among 
the Mayas is an important deity of the Serpent tribes, and this 
gives support to the theory which I am venturing to put for- 
ward that the Serpents, or Snakes came to Britain, via America. 
Kukulcan of the Toltecs, and Quetzalcoatl, or Quetzalhuacoatl 
of Mexico were both Serpent deities, as also Votan and Gloos- 



kap. Votan is probably identical with Wotan, or Odin, the 
Scandinavian Dragon. 

Cuchulinn is called Setanta. The tribe Setantii, who in- 
habited the County-Palatine of Lancaster, were known in 
Wales as Cocholyn, and it is obvious that the Setantii took 
their name from this deity of the British Isles. It is probable 
that the Setantii were a Serpent tribe, or clan. These early 
tribes left many signs of the Aryan religion in the British Isles 
and Brittany; the names Setantii and Setanta are almost 
identical with Sitanta, one of the spurs of the holy Mt. Meru, 
in Central Asia. 

In the realms of mythology Sitanta is the resort of Siddhas 
and Gandharvas, (Heavenly Musicians), of whom Narada is 
the Divine Leader. 

What is the origin of the Irish name Tipperary? There 
is a state in India called Tippera, as is well known to those 
familiar with that country. It is called Tripura by the Ben- 
galis, and is under the Province of Bengal, like Cooch Behar. 
Tripura is a name for the Mother Goddess in the form of 
Durga, the second wife of Siva, and identical with Uma and 
Gauri. The name Tippera originates from a hill-tribe, the 
members of which claim to belong to the Kshatriya caste; 
the second main caste of Hindu India, formerly that of War- 
riors and Kings. May not some of the original Tippera tribe 
have settled in that part of Ireland which is now the county 
of Tipperary? Bansha, in this county suggests Bean-Sidhe (pro- 
nounced Banshee). 

The Nagas in Bharatakhanda (Northern India) were divi- 
ded into clans. Sir Grafton Elliot Smith drew attention to the 
proficiency of the Nagas in navigation; and the Abbe Do- 
menech remarks, in connection with America, that: the divi- 
sion of tribes into clans, as in the Highlands of Scotland, 
exists among the Red-skins from time immemorial.*;*) 

The tribe Taxilii inhabited the tract of land now known 
as Aberdeenshire, and these are the people who are the most 

*) Seven Years Residence in the Great Deserts of North America. 


likely to have come from Taxila (Takshasila) in Northern 
India, when comparisons are made between the names Taxilii, 
Taxila and Takshasila, Taxila being a European contractipn 
of Takshasila. 

According to the Ramayana the province of Gandhara, 
in Northern India, was invaded by an army of Rama, led by 
his half-brother, Bharata, in conjunction with the uncle of 
Bharata, who sent troops to assist his nephew. There are several 
Bharatas, one of whom is spoken of as a royal saint, and is 
mentioned in the Vedas. The name is an important one; Bhara- 
tavarsha is the realm of King Bharat, a worthy descendant 
of Manu, the Self-born. The Bharatas must have comprised 
an immense tribe. 

Rama's half-brother, Bharata, founded the City States, or 
Boroughs of Takshasila and Pushkala, in Pushkalavati, in what 
are now the districts of Peshwar and Rawal Pindi; and he 
placed his two sons as rulers over them. The Sanskrit word 
Pura is the equivalent of the English word Borough, and the 
Scottish Burgh. At Guildford, in England, the word is to be 
seen, in a notice relating to the Castle, in the form of Burh, 
omitting the G, and which may be the original. In India, 
to this day, the word Purusha, amongst other meanings, stands 
for Townsman, or Burgher. It seems probable therefore that 
Borough, indicating a self-governing town, originated from 
Pura, the Sanskrit designation for a City State; and that Pura 
or Pur, the termination of so many place-names in India, is 
identical with Burh, the old British form of the word 

In the Adi Parva of the Mahabhdrata there is a description 
of the Sarpa-satra, or Serpent sacrifice. This was performed 
by King Janamejaya at Takshasila many years, or perhaps, 
centuries after its foundation. When divested of its poetic and 
outer shell it reveals a ghastly war of extermination waged 
against all the Serpent tribes of that district. Their fallen for- 
tunes may have caused a remnant of them to leave their coun- 
try, and to make their way as refugees to America and Britain, 
having been saved through the good offices of the sage Astika, 


who pleaded successfully for the cessation of the sacrifice and 
the lives of the Serpent people. 

A figure of Kuvera, god of Wealth, was discovered at 
Taxila, and similar figures were found in the Peshwar district. 
There were both male and female forms of this deity. 

/ 4 r 

Serpent Viking Ship. 

Skanda, the Field-marshal of the Army of the gods, appears 
to have given his name to Scandinavia, and also to have sup- 
plied the word Scandal, meaning Battle to the Gaels; he 
is a form of Mangala (Mars), also of Kartikeya. 

The first inhabitants of Scandinavia, or the first semi- 
cultured inhabitants, seem to have gone thence from the Bri- 
tish Isles, and to have retained the symbolic Dragon in their 
midst. This is the Dragon which the Welsh have to-day as 
their national emblem; and it may be perceived by observant 
people in a variety of old carvings in all parts of Britain. 


An illustration of a Ship is given in Early London,*) 
and it has a Serpent, or Dragon at the prow. This may not 
have been a very unusual figure-head for a ship in those times, 
but it is worth noticing; the stem of the ship is formed by the 
tail of the Serpent the Ship is in fact a Serpent! 

While in Norway for the Prehistoric Congress held at Oslo 
in 1936, I noticed that the Gokstad Viking Ship has a line of 
round shields on either side of it, representing the originals 
which were sixty-four in number, and in alternating colours 
of Black and Yellow. These colours, attributed to King Arthur, 
Uthr Pendragon and St. Antony, may have been those of the 
Serpent tribes. Black and Gold are the colours of Ananta, or 
Sesha, the great Serpent deity of India. 

The bow of the Viking ship found at Oseburg, and de- 
scribed by Professor Schetelig of Bergen, is in the shape of a 
Serpent, or Dragon, like that illustrated by Sir Walter Besant, 
and is called the Serpent Ship. It is a very large open boat 
made entirely of oak, and of tremendous strength, not to be 
matched in these days when wood is the only material in its 
composition. It became the grave of a queen. 

I am indebted to the Archeological Museum at Oslo for 
their kind permission to reproduce these photographs of the 
Serpent Ship, and of the wooden plaque found inside it. 

The disc discovered in this ship resembles an Indian chakra, 
or sacred Wheel. There are many varieties of Chakras, or 
Yantras, all with deep allegorical meanings. One of these 
Chakras is the Wheel of Lakshmi, or Sree; and another kind 
is one of the four symbols of Narayana, the great Serpent 
who floats on the Cosmic Ocean. The Disc, or Chakra of 
Narayana represents the Mind whose thoughts, like the 
weapon, fly swifter than the Winds. 

The Dragon ornament, so frequently seen in Norway, was 
used in the first instance for secular buildings; but in those 
times these were hallowed also, and cannot be looked upon 
as entirely secular if they were under Aryan influence. 

*) By Sir Walter Besant. 


The Dragon decorates the exterior of the little stave church 
at Borgund, near Laerdal, which is dedicated to St. Andrew. 
The church dates back at least to the thirteenth century, al- 
though constructed entirely of wood. The ground on which 
it stands was probably sacred for hundreds of years before 

Plaque in Serpent Ship. 

that. St. Andrew and Bride are also associated here, and I 
thought I saw the remains of a Druidic Circle not far away? 
Carvings of the Cross of St. Andrew ornament the interior 
of this tiny Norwegian church, but the cross is frilled, and 
has a boss in the centre proving that, as a symbol, it is older 
than that of the apostle St. Andrew. This symbolic frilling is 
seen in Hindu architecture, one example of which is that at 
Dimapur, in the Naga Hills of Assam, and mentioned by Fer- 
gusson. There are illustrations in his book of huge elaborately 
carved pillars on which this frilling is included. 


The style of the Norwegian church at Borgund is likened 
in the guide-book to that of an Indian pagoda. A pagoda is 
correctly described as Indian because the word pagoda is San- 

Drawn by M. Mitra of Cooch Behar. 

krit, although, possibly, more familiar to us in connection with 
China. It seems probable that Chinese pilgrim-students took 
back the idea to China, after studying at the famous Buddhist 
university of Nalanda, near Gaya. Mr. Dutt describes the 
style of a typical house in Bengal as having cornice brackets 
which project from under the curved beams upon the veran- 
dah of the house, their outer ends supporting the eaves- 

board.*) The curves, a distinctive feature of Chinese archi- 
tecture, are probably also of Indian origin. 

Hieun Tsang writes a description of the monastery and 

Stave church at Borgund. 

says: The houses of the monks at Nalanda were each four 
stories high. The pillars were ornamented with Dragons and 
beams resplendent with all the colours of the rainbow .... 
the roofs were covered with glazed tiles of brilliant colours. 
Here is the Dragon in its original setting, or at least as far as 
written records take us. 

*) See Living Traditions of the Folk Arts of Bengak, by G. S. Dutt, 
I. G. S., in ^Indian Art and Letters, March, 1935. 


The Hindu trinity, Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, are re- 
presented with Serpent hoods on old temples near the Ganges; 
and it would seem that the Nagas, although racially not the 
same set of people as the other Aryan tribes, were nevertheless 
in some way closely associated with the Aryan religion. 

There is a certain kind of Snake in India which has a 
Swastika on its expanded hood; as this was the emblem of the 
Nagas, and is found in many countries, it seems to point to 
the diffusion of the Serpent tribes, and also to their one time 
connection with the Sanskrit language. 

Some of the linguistic ties, as alluded to below, have al- 
ready been mentioned, and others will come in later. 

Pure Sanskrit. 

Canada, Cree, Narad a, Maya, Rama. 

Canada, the name identical with that of the Hindu sage who 
propounded the atomic theory. 

Cree Indians, with a name similar to that of the river Cree in 
Galloway, Scotland, and that of St. Catherine Cree, in 
London; the latter, with a Wheel in one of the windows, 
the Wheel of St. Catherine and Chakra of Sree of India. 

Sree is frequently alluded to as Cree in the Mahdbhdrata. 
In an earlier form the initial letter of this name was hard, with 
the sound of K; and is thus identical with the name of the 
Cree Indians of North America. 

Narada, the name of a waterfall on Mt. Takhoma, or Rainier, 
identical with that of the Indian sage, son of Muni, and 
who was noted for travelling over sea and land. 

Maya identical with Maha Maya, the great Aryan Mother. 

Rama, the name of a tribe in Central America, identical with 
that of Rama, hero of the Ramdyana. 

Possible derivations from Sanskrit. 

Alaska, Niagara, Homa, Tulsa, Ohio, Shoshonee, Pipil, 


Alaska from Alaka, the name of the capital of Kuvera, Hindu 
god of Riches, and whose wealth takes the form of gold! 

Niagara from Nirjhara, which Sir Monier Williams interprets 
as A waterfall, cataract, mountain torrent, cascade. 

Homa, the termination to Takhoma and Oklahoma, the latter, 
a State occupied by Snake tribes, and in which there is 
a place called Tulsa, similar to the sacred Tulsi of India. 

Ohio inhabited by Snake tribes, from A hi, a Snake. 

Shoshonee, or Snake tribes of America, from Shesha, the po- 
pular form of Sesha, the name of the Serpent deity of 
India, who ruled over Patala (the Antipodes). 

Pipil, the name of a tribe in Central America, from the sacred 
Pippal-tree of India. 

Uruguay from Urugaya, a name for Vishnu; and there may 
be many others identical with, or approximating to Sans- 

Guatemala from Ketumala. 

Chapter 3. 


The emblem of St. Kentigern is a Stag. Themis, the mother 
of Kentigern, is the wife, or daughter of Lot, King of Lothian, 
who appears to be Lugh, the Sun-god. According to tradition, 
Themis, or Thenew was violated by Ewen, King of Cumbria, 
who seems to have been one with the mythological Eochu, or 
Eoghan, Priest-king, or Priest-Warrior at Tara, in County 
Meath, Ireland, where formerly a famous Druidic settlement 
was established. 

Although Thenew did not submit to it voluntarily she was 
punished for this assault. By King Lot's orders she was placed 
in a two-wheeled cart, and precipitated from a steep rock 
which is thought to have been Traprain Law in Haddington, 
and which was previously called Dunpeledur. 

That Thenew was a deity can scarcely be contested. The 
cart in which she was sitting was overturned, but she escaped 
unhurt, and a beautiful, limpid fountain sprang from the spot 
where the cart fell. It is recorded that: She was set in a cart 
on the top of a mountain, and this shows the tale to be alle- 
gorical, and mythologically localized, because Traprain Law 
is not a mountain. 

The tracings, or scratchings on this rock are very strange, 
and certainly picture the result of this episode, as related in 


the Aberdeen Breviary. The prominent portions of the 

cart of their own accord, perforated the hardest stones, leav- 
ing a perpetual mark; and one may see the marks on the 
rock two thousand, or more years afterwards! 

Rock Drawing on Traprain Law. 

But King Lot was displeased with the result of ^this event, 
and Thenew was sent to a place with the very significant name 
of Aberlady, on the coast of Fife. She was sent away in a 
shallop made of osiers, and covered with hides and pitch, 
without a rudder, to be swallowed up by the dreadful and 
unfathomed ocean. Thenew was wafted to the Island of 
May, at the mouth of the Firth of Forth; and then tossed 
by the waves of the sea, sustained by a prodigious attendant 

*) By courtesy of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 


shoal of fishes she was miraculously conducted in a 
Coracle, or Curragh, against the stream, to Cullenross, or Cul- 
ross, where her son, Kentigern, was born beside a smouldering 
Fire on the beach. Thenew and her child were rescued by the 
monks of St. Serf, and Kentigern was educated at their school, 
teaching the boys, or the monks, how to produce Fire. 

The Abercorn church, on the southern bank of the Forth, 
is dedicated to St. Serf, or St. Sair: and, viewed from an 
allegorical standpoint, the emblematic Stag appears to be none 
other than St. Serf, himself. Antelopes support the coat-of-arms 
of the Duke of Abercorn. 

Saar, a Doe, is the mother of Ossian, and it would seem 
that Serf, Sair and Saar, and also the French word 
Cerf, originated from the Sanskrit contraction Sar. Sarnath 
(Sanskrit, Sarayanga-Deer: JVatha-Lord) is the name of a 
renowned Deer forest near Benares, where Prince Siddartha 
preached his first sermon. According to the Buddhists he thus 
Set in motion the Wheel of Religion. The emblems of the 
Wheel, or Chakra, and the Deer may frequently be seen to- 
gether, carved on Asokan pillars.*) 

Ossian, son of Finn, a Hunter, is probably a symbolic Deer, 
(and his mother, the Scottish Unicorn), coinciding with Ri- 
shyasringa of India, son of Vibhandaka, a Hunter. Ossian, 
or Rosgrana, probably owes its derivation to Rishyasringa. 

Mriga-Sira means Head of a Deer (Afnga-Deer: Sira- 
Head), and is the name of one of the twenty-seven constella- 
tions. It gives the name Mriga-Sira to the eighth lunar month 
of the Hindu Calendar. This month is also known as Agra- 
hayana, the beginning of the Year: and the word Agra- 
hayana seems to have been converted by the Greeks into 
Orion. At one time the Hindu year began at the commence- 
ment of this month which covers the latter half of November, 
and the first half of December. The Keltic year also began 
at this time, in very early days. 

This month is associated, mythologically, with the Deer, 

*) See ^Cambridge History of India. 


as also the constellation of Orion, which is astronomically 
connected with Mriga-Sira. 

During the fierce encounter which took place between 
Siva and his father-in-law, Daksha, when gods and mortals 
fled in terror, the Deer leaped into the Sky. According to 
Hindu mythology, it may still be seen in Orion, pursued by 
the Great Hunter, Siva. 

The Feast-day of St. Nicholas, the sixth of December, falls 
within this month. He is Santa Glaus, who drives a team of 
Reindeer. St. Nicholas is the Patron Saint of Abbot's Bromley, 
Staffordshire, and Reindeer horns are given out from the 
church by the Vicar, to the men who perform the Horn-dance. 

The account of Kentigern's birth, when viewed in the light 
of Aryan mysticism, would indicate the birth of a Son through 
Fire and Water, the masculine and feminine elements of 
Creation. Allegorically and actually the Sun and the Moon 
together cause the fusion necessary for the production of the 
Seed, or Son. Kentigern was born of the waters, like Agni, 
the Indian Spirit of Fire ; and the mother of Kentigern appears 
to be a form of Apah, or Narayana in feminine form, the 
Cosmic Waters. 

In Aryan allegory a river, or the mouth of a river is re- 
presented as Apah, and we may compare the English word 
Aperture, and the Gaelic prefix Abar, converted into 
Aber, with this Sanskrit word Apah. The prefix Aber 
makes its appearance in numerous instances in the British 
Isles, in the neighbourhood of a sea-coast, or for an estuary, 
or geographical aperture. 

Aberlady is assuredly connected with the Divine Mother, 
represented in this instance by Themis. The mother of Kenti- 
gern arrives in a Coracle (the Boat of the Sun), and all is 
enveloped in an allegorical atmosphere, with the smouldering 
Fire, and the reception by the mythic figure of Serf, or Sair. 

Themis, impersonating the Cosmic Waters, is also the 
Spirit of the river Thames, from whom, obviously, it received 
its name. Sanskrit literature throws much light upon the 
significance of Keltic allegory, and this is an example. The 

sacred Tamasa, mentioned in the Ramayana, the first great 
Sanskrit epic, may have given its name to the Thames, and 
to Themis, as I suggested in the first edition of Matter, Myth 
and Spirit, published in 1935. The Oxford Dictionary of 
English Place-names refers to the name Thames as cognate 
with the Sanskrit Tamasa, a tributary of the Ganges. 

The nymph Sabrina presides over the river Severn, pro- 
bably also sacred at one time. The deifical existence of Sabrina 
has been prolonged indefinitely by Milton in Comus; Sa- 
brina lives on in English literature while Themis has been al- 
most forgotten although she is the wife, or daughter of the 
Sun-god, Lot of Londonesia; and no less a personage than 
the Spirit of the river Thames! 

Thus, in London's mythological atmosphere, Kentigern is 
the offspring of the holy waters of the Thames, which here 
flows into the sea. Hector Boece, writing in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, speaks of Kentigern as descendant of a royal stock, for 
he was born of the divine Thames. 

The saintly figure of Kentigern is known over widely- 
spread areas in Britain ; in Wales he is looked upon as of Welsh 

There is apparently no authority for the alleged meeting 
of St. Kentigern with St. Columba at the stream Molendinar 
when Kentigern arrived there from Wales to found the city 
of Glasgow. It is now thought that Molendinar, or Mallena 
was allegorical, and not an actual stream, and that it may 
represent the Ebb and Flow of the Ocean. St. Malena is the 
Patron Saint of Mullion, or Malena on the Cornish coast. 

It is interesting to compare the following description of the 
Malini of Sanskrit literature with the Malena, or Mallena of 
Keltic literature. 

Roaming through a great Indian forest King Dushmanta 
came to the delightful retreat of some munis (ascetics). 
Sacred fires were burning here, and near by flowed the sacred 
and transparent Malini with every species of water-fowl play- 
ing on its bosom. The king beheld on its banks many ani- 

Dorothea Chaplin 


mals of the deer species.*) Near Naini Tal, a place well 
known to Europeans, is the Lake Malina Tal. 

The Malini was only a small stream, but it has been im- 
mortalized by the Hindu poet Kalidas. Sakuntala was brought 
up in a sacred grove on the banks of the Malini. The Chakwa 
(Sanskrit Chakravaka], or ruddy duck calls to its mate near 
this sacred stream. This bird, according to the poetic tradi- 
tion of India, is the ideal of conjugal fidelity, and is frequently 
mentioned in Indian classical literature. 

Kentigern is the son of Eochu, (St. Nicholas?), and if 
Eochu is the Indian Kartikeya which he appears to be, Kenti- 
gern would be a Son-god of Siva's family, in his pre-Christian 
existence. Like Agni, he is represented as a Priest, and a Pillar 
of Flame. A Tree is seen in the coat-of-arms of Glasgow, as at 
St. Andrew's. This is associated with Kentigern, the founder 
of the city, as an ecclesiastical settlement. 

The Deer, symbolizing Sacrifice, may have been imper- 
sonated by Sair, or Serf, as the head of a monastery where 
Abstinence, or Self-sacrifice would be in practice. As an alle- 
gorical Deer St. Serf, or Sair receives the child whose emblem 
in later years is a Stag. 

St. Nicholas, also connected with the Deer, is the Patron 
Saint of Children. He appears to be identical with Eochu (or 
one of the Eochus), and Eochu to be identical with Kartikeya, 
in this respect, if not in any other. Kartikeya and Shashthi, or 
Mahasena and Devasena are the Guardian deities of New- 
born Babies. These Sanskrit names probably produced the 
British surnames of Masson and Desson, as both Hindus 
and Kelts have a habit of contracting names. 

Devasena, in Keltic spheres, seems to have been Edain, or 
Etain. Max Mueller connects Eta, or Etari**} with Deer. 
The Keltic word has acquired an I, which is not at all un- 
sual; the Sanskrit name Saman added an I in Ireland, 
and became Samhain, but kept its original form in Scot- 

*) See Adi Parva of the Mahdbhdrata, translated by Protab Chandra 

**) Mandala I., Hymn 165, Verse 5, of the Rig Veda. 


land. Etain may be identical with Ethan, or Ythan in the 
North-East of Scotland, south of the Moray Firth, and in the 
region of the Abbey of Deer, also to be compared with these 
is Eta as an alternative for Cree (the Cree Indians). 

Etain is thought to have been the wife of Angus, of Mider 
and of Eochu; and these husbands were probably hers in dif- 
ferent incarnations. When Mider of Bri Leith takes away Etain 
from Eochu, and carries her off to his Elf-Mound, he declares 
that she was his wife in a previous incarnation. The doctrine 
of Reincarnation was taught by the Druids, and at least two 
of these marriages represent separate incarnations. Rebirth is 
one of the cardinal tenets of Hinduism; and, of course, is not 
a Christian belief. 

Edain, or Etain, wife of Eochu, King of Tara, at one stage 
of her deifical existence, resembles Devasena, goddess of Fe- 
cundity, and wife of Kartikeya, of India; and Edain may be 
the second, or third incarnation of Tara, herself. 

Bress, or Breas of the Kelts is the son of Angus Og, and 
the father of Eochu. Brihaspati of the Hindus is the son of 
Angiras, and the father of Kartikeya. 

The Keltic Breas, like the Indian Brihaspati (as a form 
of Agni), is beautiful, and everything beautiful was compared 
to him. 

Who is St. Dunstan, Patron Saint of Blacksmiths? Probably 
a mythic character brought to the British Isles by people 
seeking for Iron. His former name was Drostan, or Drust-agni, 
and he seems to be one with Drishtadyumna, a son, or part 
of Agni. 

In the parish of Fowey, in Cornwall, there is an inscribed 
stone at the lodge-gates of Castle Dor, Menabilly, where there 
are Four Turnings. On this stone is the word Drustagni, and 
at the back is the Tau Cross. Professor Loth expresses the 
opinion that the Tau Cross is not part of the pagan cults of 
Rome, but that it is of the paganism of Gaul, i. e., of 
Keltic origin? 

This stone at Menabilly is a memorial to Trystram, whose 
previous name was Drustan, or Drustagnus. Trystram was a 


High Priest, possibly a Priest- Warrior, like Bress and Eochu. 
Trystram may have been the allegorical Drishtadyumna of the 
Aryans and Breas may have been Brihaspati (Jupiter), Priest 
of the Celestials! 

In Buchan, Aberdeenshire, St. Dunstan was Abbot of Deer. 
This saint may have been both human and allegorical, but he 
certainly had a pre-Christian existence. He is well known in 
London as the Patron Saint of St. Dunstan's-in-the-West, and 
of the old church of St. Dunstan' s-in-the-East, also there is 
St. Dunstan's Hill, in the London district, near to which are 
Roman remains. St. Dunstan is known in the North of Scotland 
as St. Drostan. There is a church at Halkirk, Sutherlandshire, 
not far from Georgemas, dedicated to St. Drostan; and in 
Angus there are reminders of him in Droustie's Well and 
Droustie's Meadow. Drustie^s Fair was also held at one time 
on this Eastern side of Scotland. 

The place-name Angus. may have come from the deifical 
personage Angus Og. The Keltic name Angus is sometimes 
spelt Anguis, and may once have been Angiras. Angiras 
of India is one of the mentally-generated sons of Brahma, the 

As regards the very ancient Book of Deer, and the Abbey 
of Deer, these are not supposed to have any connection with 
the animal of that name. It is not unlikely, however, that this 
is actually the origin of the word Deer in this connection. 
The date of St. Dunstan in the Christian Calendar is the four- 
teenth of December, covered by the Hindu month Mriga-Sira, 
(the Head of a Deer). 

Before the Abbey of Deer was built a famous Keltic monas- 
tery stood on the spot. Nothing now remains of the abbey 
except the outline, and ruins of buildings formerly attached 
to it. The stones of this venerable edifice were carted away 
for secular purposes after the Reformation, but the property 
has been acquired by the Roman Catholics, and, consequently, 
will be carefully preserved in the future. 

St. Giles appears at Elgin and in Edinburgh with his em- 
blem of a Hind. There is a church dedicated to St. Giles in 


Baildon, Yorkshire, the name of the place suggesting an old 
Keltic fort. The town stands on the river Aire, and if this is 
named after the great Mother Arya, it would be a probable 
site for a shrine to an Aryan god. 

The colours of Edinburgh appear to be Black and White, 
those of an Antelope. Rishyasringa (Ossian?) is the White- 
footed Antelope. A Maiden clothed in Red appears in the 
coat-of-arms of Edinburgh, with a Doe beside her. It would 
seem that she is Edain, or Etain. In old records Edinburgh is 
called Eidyn, and also Etin; and these old forms seem to be 
allied to the two names Edain and Etain, introducing an 
I, as in other cases, into the original word Etan. 

Etain, transported by Mider to Bri Leith, in Irish legend, 
is probably associated with Mider in Edinburgh as the river 
Leith flows through this city. Edain may be the feminine form, 
or the mother of Aed, the Fiery Torch, who is sometimes 
mentioned as being the son of Lugh, or Lot, and whose 
daughter was beloved by Ossian. 

In Edinburgh, with Arthur's Seat as the most striking fea- 
ture in the landscape, it looks as if Aed and Arthur might be 
one. It has been noticed that Arthur's character differs slightly 
in this neighbourhood. Allegorically, Glasgow is a City of the 
Sun, and Edinburgh, of the Moon. Siva's predecessor in Vedic 
times is Vayu, who rides a Deer, and carries a Flag. 

Marichi, a will-born son of Brahma, the Creator, also seems 
to be the Deer, if he is related in an allegorical sense to 
Marich of the Ramayana. Rdvana, King of Lanka, wishes to 
abduct Sita, the lovely wife of Rama, at this time in the 
Dandaka Forest. To accomplish his object the wily Ravana 
compels Marich to assume the form of a Deer. Marich, using 
his potent illusory skilk, takes the form of a Deer, and ap- 
pears before Sita while she is gathering flowers. This wonderful 
deer, having its down resembling gold, horns resembling ex- 
quisitely fine diamonds, color like the newly-risen Sun and 

resplendence like that of the orbit of the planets that 

illusive deer seeing Rama's wife, began to move around as if 
lighting up the forest (with the fire of its beauty ). Rama, 


at the bidding of his wife, who returns to the hermitage, follows 
the deer, and is thus lured away, giving Ravana the desired 
opportunity of securing Sita. 

The Rakshasas were Hindus and it may be that Marich is 
allied to Marichi who married Apah, of whom the Keltic 
Themis appears to be a form Themis, the mother of Kentigern 
whose emblem is a Stag. King Mark of Cornwall and the 
surname March may have originated from Marich, Ossian, 
with a Doe mother, is a possible counterpart of Rishyasringa, 
who is a descendant of Marichi. Ossian may be the original 
St. Serf, or St. Sair, taking his mother's name Saar, ac- 
cording to Keltic, and also according to Hindu custom. 

Muni, mother of Makal and Narada, and, possibly, in 
Keltic lands, mother of Mekel and Ander, is one of the wives 
of Kasyapa, son of Marichi. 

Keltic. Hindu. 

Brahma, the Creator 

King Mark of Cornwall Marichi 

Nudd (?) Kasyapa 

Finn Vibhandaka 

Rosgrana (Ossian) Rishyasringa 

Oscar, or Oscara Alamvusha 

At Abbot's Bromley, of which St. Nicholas is the Patron 
Saint, the Morris Dance suggests a connection with the Maruts, 
or Wind-gods, whose vehicles are Speckled Deer. Rudra ( Vayu) 
of whom Makal (Michael?) is a form, is Chief of the Maruts, 
according to some accounts, sometimes it is Indra who holds 
this position. 

At Leith, the Port of Edinburgh, there is, or was, an old 
chapel of St. Nicholas to which James, the Fourth, used to 
make pilgrimages, and all may be connected with Eochu (St. 
Nicholas?), Etain and Mider of the far-off past. Rudra may 
have given rise to the British names Rudd, Ruthrie, Rod- 
erick and Rutherford. Near Aberdeen, is the place called 


Ruthrieston, where there was probably a stone in honour of 
Ruthrie (Rudra?) at one time. 

The remarkable monument in Aberdeenshire which is now 
known as the Newton Stone,*) has been removed from its 
original position. It was previously in a fir plantation close to 
the present toll-gate of Shevack; and as it was formerly on 
the Pitmachie land Mr. Diack thinks it must be the Pitmachie 
Stone. The meaning of the inscription is obscure; it is in old 
Latin, but one of the letters takes the form of the Swastika, 
betraying an earlier influence. The word Ette, which is also 
on the St. Vigean's Stone in Angus, is identical with the 
woman's name Ete, mentioned in the Book of Deer. This 
may have been the deifical personage Etain, wife of Eochu. 
If St. Vigean is St. Fechin of the race of Eochu it is not 
unsuitable to find the name of his wife inscribed on the stone. 
The next word on the Pitmachie Stone is Evagainnias which 
Mr Diack interprets as Eogan (Eochu). 

The inscription on the St. Vigean's Stone begins with the 
name of Drosten; and thus Drostan (St. Dunstan), Abbot 
of Deer, is also associated with Ette, or Etain, the Deer. 

The family seat of the Earls Ferrer, who were mentioned 
in the first chapter, is Ettingham, in the County of Warwick. 
Surely there must be a connection between Ettingham and 
Etain, or Ette; also an association between these and the Ber- 
wicks of Attingham, with Attington Hall as their seat. This 
baronial family have a crest formed by a Stag; three Stags' 
Heads in their coat-of-arms; and the Sinister Supporter is a 

*) See The Newton Stone: and other Inscriptions*, by Francis Diack 


Chapter 4. 


The pre-Christian church of the Picts continued to observe 
many of its old customs and habits long after the introduction 
of the new religion into these islands. Monks, in Hindu fashion, 
used to go away and live in solitude among the wilds of Nature, 
as part of their monastic life and training; both Kelts and 
Hindus having, in the first instance, obtained their religion 
from the same source. No distinct line can be drawn between 
pre-Christian and Christian; they merge like all other thought, 
both religious and secular, also in many of their characteristics. 

On the whole the early Church gave an example of great 
wisdom and tolerance in blending and grafting the rites and 
ceremonies of the Aryan religion on to the Christian. This was 
far less hurtful, and more humane than a policy of destruction. 

Many of the Latin saints show equation with early Keltic 
characters. St. Andrew, as a Christian figure, probably took 
the place of Ander, or Adr. The Indian sage, Narada, seems 
to have evolved in Keltic regions into Adr, Ander, and finally 
into St. Andrew, Patron Saint of Scotland. 

Merrie Andrew of the Middle Ages preserved the playful 
characteristics of Narada, which, in the case of the Indian sage, 
may have had something to do with the freaks of Wind and 

The deities of the Aryans are the forces of Nature, but 
including Man who cannot be separated from the rest of 
the Cosmos. All is interwoven and interdependent; the Sun, 


the Wind, the Moon and the Tides, Mountain and Cloud, like 
Man himself, are all parts of the One stupendous Whole. 

As envisaged by the Aryans of old, Nature includes the 
Mind as well as the Body. The human mind cannot be looked 
upon as individual beyond a certain point which cannot be 
precisely defined. A great man passes away and leaves his 
thoughts transcribed ; in other words, he leaves part of his mind 
behind him, but his individual mind cannot be entirely disso- 
ciated from the minds which have influenced him in the past, 
nor from those which may be impressed by his in the future. 
There are no boundaries to the individual mind, nor to the 
collective one. Mind is all One and indivisible, and so are all 
religious and scientific conceptions; there are only artificial 
barriers between them, and this is also evident with political 

When votes are taken on any particular Bill before 
Parliament they do not keep rigidly within Party boundaries; 
if they did there would be no object in taking them! 

Past, Present and Future arc indissolubly bound together, 
and this makes it worth while to give a little attention to 

Much light is thrown upon the veiled happenings of the 
distant past if we hold these facts in mind. The Fertility Cult 
includes the Mind and mental activity as well as bodily activity. 
Intellectual Seeds, like physical Seeds, must be sown on fertile 

The word May is very significant in the British Isles; in 
connection with Maypole festivities it is associated with St. An- 
drew. Forteviot in Perthshire is connected with St. Andrew, 
and at the western end of the village is May Water, the river 

In the Aboyne Records, Walter Davidson is mentioned as 
the Prior of Maya, or May. The Sanskrit word Maya is 
pronounced somewhat like mye, and May field in Galloway 
is pronounced myefield. The name of May field in Sussex, 
has apparently been Anglicised, like Mayfield in Derbyshire. 
The village of this name in Sussex is full of tradition centering 


round St. Dunstan (Drostan). May Fires once burned on May 
Hill, not far from Mole Arthur, a Druidic camp on the 
Herefordshire Beacon, in the Malvern range, and there are 
many indications that the word May is connected with ritual 
and religion. Themis arrives in her Coracle on the Island of 
May at the time of the birth of her son, Kentigern, and 
probably she is a form of the Aryan Mahamaya, the Great 
Mother. The other names with the word May as the whole, 
or part of the name, may all be founded on the Sanskrit Maya 
or Mahamaya long before the Greek Maia came into deifical 
being, although her name probably came from the same source. 

St. Michael seems to be connected with the cult of 
Shamanism, which is not surprising if he is recognized as Makal 
of the Aryans. Makal is Yama, and Shamanism is the cult of 
the Sramanas*) the cult of Yama, or Saman. The Eskimos 
in the Polar regions, among whom this cult prevails, were 
called Innuits, and this is probably the name of their Mother 
Goddess because a form of the great Mother was known in the 
Western Highlands of Scotland as Anait, and near Kinnoir, 
Huntly, on the Eastern side is Annet's Well. 

The scene of the Knappers excavations is partly in the 
Glasgow district of Anniesland, so it is evident that Annie, or 
Anait was the deity to whom the Serpent temple on this site 
was dedicated. It may be that Aine of Ireland is the same deity, 
and that Aintree, near Liverpool, was named after her. She 
may be one with Anne, sister of King Arthur, who probably 
was the goddess of St. Anne's Well on the Malvern Hills in 
close proximity to the Druidic camp which is still known as 
Mole Arthur. 

There are frequent reminders of Micheil, or St. Michael 
throughout Scotland, as there were in the North-West of 

Micheil and Anait seem to be associated in America, in 
Scotland and also in Africa. 

One may notice in the London Library some pictures, or 

*) See Matter, Myth and Spirit*. 


vignettes on the Ethiopia amulets there. On these are depicted 
St. Michael and the Sun and Moon. They are thought to re- 
present the Legend of Aynat. 

In Abyssinia there is a place called Makalle, a name akin 
to that of Michael, or Makal. Ethiopia was an extension, one 
might say, of the great region of Bharatavarsha,*) colonized, 
or inhabited by peoples of the Aryan faith, though not neces- 
sarily Indians. In this part of the world Vishnu appears as a 
Tortoise, or Turtle, the form which he took in his second in- 

An ancient Wooden Platter was found about ten miles from 
Zimbabwe in Mashonaland. There is a large Turtle in the 
centre of this Dish, and round the rim are some zodiacal char- 
acters in primitive form, and amongst other emblems are the 
Sun and the Moon, and a Triangle, the latter being the Hindu 
marriage symbol. 

The Turtle is the special manifestation of Vishnu in the 
Varsha, or division of Bharata, as regulated by the Rishis. 

The Platter was discovered in a Cave which was probably 
sacred. That this Dish was connected with the Aryan peoples 
is probable on account of the symbols, and the area in which 
it was found. 

In some English counties, at the prime of the moon, people 
were accustomed to say: It is a fine moon, God bless her, 
and, in Scotland, there are still some who curtsey three times 
to the Moon, saying: Bless you, my Lady. 

In Bayley's Etymological Dictionary we find an article en- 
titled The Moon. The moon was worshipped by the 

Britons in the form of a beautiful maid, having her head 
covered, with two ears standing out. Surely this is the wor- 
shipful Hare? 

It may be because there were two Balis, that the figure 
of Bali, a Sun-god, sometimes appears with characteristics of 
a Moon-god, but no clear line can be drawn between them with 
regard to Britain, apparently. Bali was a king, an allegorical 

*) See Chart. 


monarch, both in the Netherworld and in Britain. He is 
descended mythologically from Brahma, the Creator, Marichi 
and Kasyapa, in one of his forms. He sometimes appears as a' 
son of Indra, an aditya, and thus a Sun-god. 

Balor (Bali) is the father and husband of Ethne (Tara, the 
Blue Sarasvati). Ethne, or Aethne, seems to be identical with 
Pallas Athene of Greece. In her lesser form, Ethne is Sarasvati, 
goddess of Wisdom, like Athene; and Tara also is associated 
with Learning. 

Tara is the mother of the Indian Budh; and Ethne (Tara?) 
is the mother of the Keltic Lugh. Bali is sometimes the father 
of Lugh. In India there is a Bali who is of the Lunar dynasty. 
Bali of Britain resembles the first Bali of India (a Daitya) in 
that he is a Fomorian, and the second, in his descent from Indu. 
The Keltic Indu, ancestor of Bali, has a name corresponding 
precisely with that of the Sanskrit Indu, the Moon. 

Many Beal fires were lit throughout Britain in honour of 
Bali, or Beli, and Belin's Gate in London is a reminder of him. 

Many places in the British Isles have received their names 
from the sacred Ash-tree, the symbol of Light and Fire. The 
surnames Ash and Ashley, and the place-names Ash and 
Ashstead, for instance. 

In Surrey, the Manor House of Ash stands on Ash Green; 
it was built in 1279, and was once a fortified monastery. The 
site is supposed to be that of a Druidic temple. This Manor 
House is mentioned in one of the True Ghost Stories, in a 
tale by Maude ffoulkes. 

The great Fire-god, Siva, is Lord of Ghosts, and is followed 
by a train of spectres! 

Ash, in Kent, with ancient relics, has a chapel dedicated 
to St. Nicholas. This saint appears to be connected with sacred 
Trees, all showing the Aryan atmosphere, Ashill, in Norfolk, 
has a church dedicated to St. Nicholas, as also Ashmore, in 
Dorset. The sacred Ash-tree seems to be personified by Ash- 
toreth, the consort of Bal, in Semitic countries. 

In the Times (17.4.36.) Professor Langdon discusses 
an early Canaanite inscription, part of which can be deciphered 


on a fragment of a terra-cotta bowl found on a rubbish-heap 
at Lachish (Tel Duweir) in Palestine. On Plate viii of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund (1933), published by Mr 
Starkey, there is a picture of this bowl. Professor Langdon reads 
the Sinaitic script as Ba'al-lil, or however the last two letters 
may be vocalized; and he compares this name with the 
Canaanite deity Beliy a-al ; the first part of this compound word 
appears to be Sanskrit, and the second part, Arabic. It obviously 
refers to the pre-Christian and pre-Judaic-Bal, or Bel. North 
of Lydda in Palestine is Qalqiliya. In Peru, the Mother God- 
dess is Mama Quilla, and in the Eastern Pyrenees is the Gorge 
St. George, near Quillan. Ma is Sanskrit for Mother. Ila is 
a form of Lakshmi, wife of Vishnu, and is probably the 
foundation for the Peruvian, the Basque and the Palestinian 
names. There is no Q in the Sanskrit alphabet, but this letter 
probably crept in later. Beliya-al, seemingly is named after Bali, 
Lydda, after his son, Lugh, or Lud, and Qalqiliya, after Ila, 
the consort of Lugh. 

And now we come to St. George, Patron Saint of England, 
and so closely connected with St. Michael in the Garter 
ceremony. Lydda, or Lud, in Palestine is the place where St. 
George is supposed to have suffered martyrdom. Very little 
history is attached to this saint in spite of his important position 
in England. It is thought that he came from Syria, but his 
history becomes considerably enlarged if visualized in the sphere 
of allegory and mythology. 

St. Michael is the Patron Saint of Helston, in Cornwall, 
where the Furry Dance takes place annually on the eighth of 
May, about the time of St. George's Day (Old Style). The 
oldest part of the dance is performed by the Boys of the town, 
and one boy wears the Red and White Flag of St. George, 
although I understand he is representing St. Michael. The 
festival is said to take place on the day of the Apparition of 
St. Michael. I think the figure on a mule(?) must once have 
been the Mother Goddess Kali, with a Black face (Mahakali, 
the feminine form of Makal). 

During the Fertility celebrations of this Spring festival, a 


song is sung by the Boys which is very old, and contains an 
allusion to St. George, who may be the same figure as the 
mysterious Jack-in-the-Green. 

According to the reproduction given by the Folk-dance and 
Song Society, Jack-o'-the-Green moves round with slow, 
circulatory movements among the dancers during these 

The word George means husbandman. St. George is 
the Divine Husbandman, but seems also to be associated with 
Traders. He appears in this form at Gubbio, in Umbria, Italy, 
where the people are of Keltic origin, and quite different to 
their neighbours. A ceremony of high antiquity takes place in 
this ancient town, on, or about the fifteenth of May. 

St. George and St. Antony accompany St. Ubaldo, Patron 
Saint of Gubbio, when the cortege makes its way round the 
town. An ecclesiastical procession takes place at the same time, 
and goes in the opposite direction, but associates at one point. 

The figures in the form of the saints, and carried in the 
civic procession, are made of wax, and are called the Ceri; 
Cer is an old Irish name for wax. 

The men who 'carry the Ceri wear a Red and White 
uniform. These are the colours of the Morris Dancers in some 
places, supposedly of St. George, and also those of the Fire-god, 
Agni. It is more likely, as has been suggested, that these are 
actually the colours of the Church, not the personal colours of 
St. George. They throw this saint into the light of a Priest- 
Warrior, like Agni, who is both a Brahmin and a Kshatriya. 

St. Antony is a Fire-walker, and sometimes appears with 
the face of a Goat; Agni, the Indian Spirit of Fire, is first 
White and then Red, and his vehicle, representing masculine 
virility, is a He-Goat. The name of Antony was formerly 
Tantony, and it is significant in this connection that tan 
means fire, and that it should be the first syllable of the 
name Tantony. Tanunapat, a form of Agni, has a name 
meaning Lord of Fire. 

Before the Cero is elevated a vessel of water is emptied over 
it and thrown away. This piece of ritual accords with that of 


the Hindus in regard to images. In India the image itself is 
sometimes thrown away after a ceremony is ended as it is 
merely an object for conveying some symbolic idea, a picture 
in more realistic form than if represented in a lesser dimension. 

On the evening of the proceedings at Gubbio bonfires are 
lit on the surrounding hills, and the town is illuminated, pro- 
ducing a charming effect, and carrying out the old Keltic 
custom of Beacon lighting.*) The festival seems to be both 
religious and civic. 

As regards St. George, it is curious that we should find 
Georgemas close to Halkirk, in Sutherlandshire, in view of 
the fact that in the old traditional Furry dance at Helston the 
exceedingly ancient song is sung, referring to St. George, and 
including the words Hal-an-Tow of which the meaning is lost 
in the mists of antiquity. It is probable that Georgemas was 
once the scene of festivities in honour of St. George, or his 
predecessor in Keltic lands, as both Hal and Mas are pre- 

St. George's Well, Padstow, Cornwall is legendary; and 
was probably sanctified long before the coming of the Chri- 
stian St. George. According to tradition, a spring of crystal 
water burst forth when St. George had trodden on the spot, 
and since that time it has never ceased to flow. 

St. George is well represented in Keltic districts on the Con- 
tinent, and many churches are dedicated to him. In Carinthia, 
Austria, he appears as the Green George, no doubt he who 
gives his name to so many old English hostelries. At the lovely 
little town of Dinkelsbiihl, in Bavaria, the large and beautiful 
church is under his patronage. At the Corpus Christi festival 
in June the church is decorated with Birch-trees. About fifty 
young trees stand in the chancel and the side aisles, and against 
the tall, Gothic pillars in the nave. 

An ecclesiastical procession winds round the town, as in 
many other places, and Grass is strewn along the streets by 
youthful members of both sexes. Grass is the symbol of fresh 
Life from the Sun, and is personified in India by Kusa and 
Lava, the sons of Rama, and of the Earth Mother, Sita 


(Lakshmi). Grass is borne on the head at the Cooch Behar 
Fire festivals, in Eastern Bengal. 

The seats of St. George's, Dinkelsbiihl, are massively carved 

St. George, Rothenburg. 

in alternating designs. On the first there is a Scallop-shell at 
the top, and below there are Seeds, with a graceful, elongated 
Bud, and small Flower. On the second is a Flower in full 
bloom, with a Basket of Fruit on the top, forming in all an 
allegory of Life a representation of the Fertility Cult of 
which St. George is evidently an impersonation. 


The above shows the figure of St. George on a fountain in 
Rothenburg, Bavaria. He is depicted as a Warrior with the 
Naga head-dress of Feathers. As an allegorical personage St.. 
George fights the forces of Darkness, and has a special, sym- 
bolic Sword, such as is possessed by Agni. The spiritualistic 
characteristics of St. George are demonstrated by the fact that 
he became a Christian saint, and that innumerable churches 
have him as their Patron Saint, including the one described 
above with its carvings allegorizing Life in Seed, Blossom and 
Fruit. It is highly probable that the flag of St. George, Red 
and White, is that of the Church when the fact is taken into 
consideration that the colours are those of Agni, the Great 
High Priest! 

The Shield with the colours of St. George in London's coat- 
of-arms has a Sword, or Dagger in the First Quarter. The 
weapon is the Sword of St. Paul. St. George and Lugh are 
associated at Lydda, in Palestine, and also in London, the 
Town of Lud. Lugh, apparently, is Mercury, god of the Mani- 
fold Sciences, and, as such, a reflection of the Indian Budh 

The London armorial bearings are supported by Two 
Dragons, symbolic animals with which both St. George and 
Lugh are associated. The Helmet at the top is surmounted with 
the Left Wing of a Dragon. The idea is probably very much 
older than the coat-of-arms. Dragons appeared thus for the 
first time in 1633, but the Helmet with the Dragon, or Griffin 
Wing contains the symbolism of a very much older insignia. 

George may be Gwargi (Light), and identical with Gorgie 
of Scotland, whose name is pronounced with hard Cymric 
G's, also with Garga of India, an Architect, and with a 
temple dedicated to him in the Rewa State. 

The George and Dragon Inn at Gorton, in Cheshire, sug- 
gests association with Gorgie, and an origin for the place and 
personal name of Gorton. 

There is a mound in Berkshire called Dragon Hill; and, 
as in the case of other mounds in the British Isles, and many 
in America, it is not known whether this mound is artificially 

Dorothea Chaplin 


constructed, or not. On this Berkshire hillock King Gaarge 
is supposed to have killed a Dragon, and to have rescued a 
maiden from its clutches; but the rescue of this princess by 
St. George, or King Gaarge, is probably a legend of the age 
of chivalry, and knighthood, and is obviously of much later 
date than those of St. George as an allegorical being. Even if 
he had been killing a monster of some kind in the shape 
of a personification of Darkness there seems no particular 
reason why the hill should be named after the wild beast. It 
would seem more probable that the mound should have been 
called after the king than that the victim should have received 
that honour; also where would the living dragon come from? 

It is noteworthy that there is a Dragon's Mound at Finglen- 
ny, near Rhynie, in Aberdeenshire; and that it is known as 
Wormie Hillock. There is also Worm-Hill in the County Pala- 
tine of Durham, where there are brine springs. A legend is 
attached to Worm Hill in which a formidable Snake is said 
to have been killed by one of the Lambton family. 

The Welsh colours, Red and Green, are those of Yama 
(Mahakala) of India. St. Michael, or Micheil of Britain some- 
times appears in scaled armour, and it may be that he is the 
Red Dragon of Wales, son of Muni, or Mon, the Mother of 
Wales. There were Two symbolic Dragons in Britain, one 
Dark, and the other, Light. This may account for the Two 
Dragons sometimes seen carved in stone, or wood. The Two 
Dragons are associated with Night and Day: they are the 
two guileless Dragons, Dark and Light. 

The Dragon being of so much importance in Britain, and 
elsewhere in prehistoric times as a symbol makes it appear 
probable that the mound in Berkshire, Wormie Hillock and 
Worm Hill were specially made in its honour, and that they 
were shrines to George, Gorgie or Gwargi, a reflection of Garga 
in India. Garga is a son of Brahma, the Creator, and Gargya 
is his son, or any man born in his line. 

In the Reliques of Ancient English Poetry there is a 
poem on the legend of the birth of St. George, and it leaves 
no doubt but that St. George is himself the Dragon. 


The Weird Lady of the Woods says to Lord Albeit, father 
of St. George: 

Verse 22. Sir Knight, thy lady bears a son, 
Who, like a dragon bright, 
Shall prove most dreadful to his foes, 
And terrible in fight. 

Verse 38. Fair as the sweetest flower of spring, 
Such was his infant mien: 
And on his little body stampt, 
Three wonderous marks were seen.- 

Verse 39. A blood-red cross was on his arm; 
A dragon on his breast; 
A little garter all of gold 
Was round his leg expressed. 

Verse 40. Three careful nurses we provide, 
Our little lord to keep. 

But the small boy disappears mysteriously, to the intense 
grief of his father, and only reappears when he reaches man- 
hood. His mother dies after giving birth through great suf- 
fering to a Dragon! 

From the Book of British Ballads (1842). 

Chapter 5. 


The Keltic hero, Cuchulinn, has been likened to Achilles, 
but actually he is greater. The Greek hero displayed his pro- 
wess like Cuchulinn, but was actuated by personal motives, 
and revengeful intentions. Cuchulinn chose a short life for 
the sake of his country, and he fought and suffered for it; the 
conception of the Keltic deity is therefore higher. 

The ghastly accounts of battle, so graphically described in 
Irish literature pourtraying this legendary period, closely re- 
semble in style those given in the Ramdyana and the Mahab- 

Chariots are associated with this deifical being and his ex- 
ploits, which is in keeping with Hindu traditions and epic tales. 
These vehicles are a great feature in the Mahabhdrata War, 
and charioteers often take a leading part. Chariots are also of 
importance in the yet older epic, the Ramayana, when the 
fierce contest between Rama and Ravana is taking place. 

As a Boy-god who performs marvellous deeds at the age 
of six, or seven years, Cuchulinn, apparently, is a form of 
Eochu, corresponding to Kartikeya of India. Kartikeya ac- 
complishes wonderful feats at the age of six, or seven days! 

Cuchulinn seems to combine both Bird and Serpent. When 
he shows himself as the Cuckoo he represents the first; and in 
his character of the Feathered Serpent, in the second. But it 
is combined symbolism, and Cuchulinn seems to be identical 
with Peredur son of Lugh, both Serpents. 


Apparently, Cuchulinn, or Kukil Can of the British Isles, 
like Kukulcan of America, derived his name from the Sans- 
krit Kakila, or Kokila, a name for the Cuckoo! 

Kukulcan of the ToltecSj who preceded the Aztecs in 
Mexico, is the Plumed Serpent, the word Can meaning 
Serpent . 

Not only is Cuchulinn remembered in -Scotland and Ire- 
land, but also at Wareham, in Dorset, where the Cuckoo legend 
has been handed down for centuries. This deity may also be 
associated with Cuckmere, Cuckfield and Heathfield in Sussex. 
A Cuckoo Fair is hefd annually at Heathfield, and the legend 
relating to it tells of an Old Woman letting a Cuckoo fly out 
from a Basket. The Basket, like the Corn Measure, has an alle- 
gorical significance in India; it is the Yoni of the Creatress, 
or Earth Mother, a simple, but beautiful conception founded 
on the laws of Nature. The Cuckoo, in this case, probably 
represents Spring, and all that goes with it. 

The ancient Ball-game is still played in this country. At 
St. Columb, in Cornwall, it is called Hurling, and is played 
with a wooden Ball, covered with Silver. The game is thought 
to have been part of a religious ceremony as the Ball is thrown 
out of the church window. The ceremony takes place at 

The Ball-game is played at Sedgefield, ten miles from Dur- 
ham, and at several places in England and Scotland. It con- 
tinues to be played with zest at Jedburgh (Gadburgh, town 
of the Gadenii), and at the same time of year as at St. Co- 
lumb. This season, Candlemas-tide, was probably the festival 
of the Moon-god when the Ball-game was first introduced to 
these parts. It was, and may still be played at Kirkwall, in 
the Orkneys, and also at a place near Darmstadt, in Ger- 

Kirkby Malzead, near Ripon, is another scene of the Ball- 
game. Here the players wear Red and White jerseys. The game 
used to be played in Derby, Dorking, Epsom and Bromfield 
in Cumberland. Ashbourne, in Derbyshire, where I believe it 
is still played, recalls the sacred Ash-tree, symbol of Light; 


Epsom shows signs of connection with the Horse (Vishnu, 
the Horse-headed One) ; Bromfield like Broomfield in Essex, 
Bromley, in Kent; and Abbot's Bromley, or Paget's Bromley 
in Staffordshire, relates to the Field of Brahma, first person 
of the Hindu trinity. Thus the nomenclature of these places 
associated with the Ball-game, obviously arises from Aryan 
religious beliefs. 

The Ball-game enters into American legend, and is asso- 
ciated with the Rabbit (the Moon). It seems also to accord 
with an Ossirian rite, but probably derived from India. What 
evidence is there that the ceremony originated in Egypt? 

Attention was drawn not very long ago to some Ball-play- 
ing in a window in Gloucester Cathedral, and it was likened 
to Golf. Such a subject as ball-playing is not likely to have 
found a place in a sacred building unless some religious signi- 
ficance had been attached to it. Probably, at one time it had 
this character. At the funeral of the last Captain of the St. 
Andrew's Golf Club, as on previous occasions of the kind, 
draped Silver and Gold Golf balls, presented by generations 
of members of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. An- 
drew's were carried in the procession. 

An allegorical Ball-game, or incident with a Ball is 
described in the Adi Parva of the Mahdbharata. It is related 
how the princes came out of the city and began to play with 
a ball, and when they were thus playing the ball fell into a 
well. The boys cannot get it out, and presently they see a 
Brahmin approaching; he is Drona who after this event be- 
comes their Preceptor. He says to them: Shame upon your 
Kshatriya might, and on your skill in arms. The water of the 
well had been dried up. Drona was a skilled archer, and had 
a mighty bow, and quivers full of arrows with him. He offered 
to help them, and threw down his Ring into the well. Then 
taking a few grass-stalks, growing near, he sharpened the ends. 
Putting one of them in his bow, he shot the improvised arrow 
into the well; and it stuck fast to the Ball; he then sent down 
a second piece of grass, and several more, and finally made a 
chain long enough to raise the Ball and Ring to the sur- 


face, using mantras, or chants beforehand in order to invest 
the Grass with the virtue of weapons. Grass typifies Virile 

These Kshatriya youths, typical of Young Manhood, are 
the sons of Kunti, or Prithvi, the Earth Mother, and it looks 
to me as if the whole account was allegorical. Drona is train- 
ing them in the Science of Arms, of which he is Master. Drona 
is a descendant of Brihaspati, Preceptor to the Aryan gods, 
and Breas, or Bress of the Kelts appears to be his counterpart. 

The Kaurava and Pandava princes seem to have been play- 
ing a game similar to that played by Cuchulinn, and the 
children of King Arthur. For the Indian game a wooden ball 
was used, or a short stout stick which took the place of a ball. 
One or other of these was struck with a wooden club of some 
length, which is not unlike some descriptions of the Ball-game 
in the British Isles, that at St. Columb, for instance, where 
the ball is of wood, and that at Scone, the historic seat 
of royalty, in Perthshire. At Scone, the ball was hit with a 
club, made of brass, and called a hurly. 

The village of Chilham in Kent has a legend which has 
been under discussion recently. King Lucius is said to have 
reigned at Chilham during the second century, A. D.; but 
this does not seem a very probable date for the Sun-god, Lugh, 
who, in all probability, is no other than King Lucius, or King 
Lud. It seems more likely that Chilham was a shrine in honour 
of Lugh, at a much earlier date, and that the syllable chil 
is a rendering of Til, or Taltiu, the name of the foster- 
mother of Lugh. 

St. Peter's, Cornhill, was traditionally founded by this king, 
as also Westminster Abbey. The legend appears to be a mytho- 
logical, Romanized outlook for the founding of a temple on 
this site by Lugh, the Sun-god, in pre-Roman times, for the 
housing of Aryan deities. The chief of these deities, as regards 
Westminster and St. Peter's, Cornhill, was probably Fal, or 
Peredur, the son of Lugh. 

There is much Aryan mysticism about Westminster, and 
it was probably based on the highest idealism, according to the 


Budh and IIS, Ida or Ira, the Indian Parents of Creation, 
seem to find a reflection in Lugh, and his consort Ila, or Alain. 

Pururava is the son of Budh, and Ayu is the son of Puru- 
rava. Peredur is the son of Lugh, and Aife (with the F 
silent) is the son of Peredur, or Cuchulinn, in more or less the 
same allegorical setting. 

Brahma, the Creator 



I I 

Can, or Kian = Ethne (Tara) Soma, or Can = Tara 

Lugh = Alain, or Ila Budh = Ila 

I I 

Peredur Pururava 

I, I 

Aife Ayu 

Pururava is represented in some of the Vedic legends as 
the Upper Fire-stick in the sacrament of Fire, the nymph 
Urvasi is the Lower Fire-stick, and Ayu is the sacrificial Ghi, 
or Melted Butter which is poured upon the Flames. All is alle- 
gorical and full of meaning, and many beautiful legends are 
woven around Pururava and Urvasi. 

At Abbot's Bromley, during the Horn Dance, one of the 
men taking part wears a White costume, such as might once 
have been worn by a Druidical priest. This man carries a 
Ladle, now used for collecting money. In ancient times it was 
probably a sacrificial accessory for Fire ceremonies, coming 
down to us in the form of a sacramental Spoon. 

More than one kind of Ladle is used for this purpose in 
India. It is the Sruva which seems to coincide with the one 
carried in the Horn Dance. The Sruva is a cubit in length, 
and is made of wood, with a double extremity, or two collateral 
excavations. The Keltic Ladle would seem once to have been 
a symbol of Brahma, like the other; it has the double ex- 
tremity, and is to be seen in Bromley, in a religious procession, 
on ground which, possibly at one time, was the Field of 
Brahma. The man who takes it round wears something in the 


nature of a priestly vestment, and the dance is distinctly as- 
sociated with religious ceremonies of a pre-Christian period. 

St. Nicholas, Patron Saint of Abbot's Bromley, or Bagotfs 
Bromley, appears to have been a Son-god, and thus a form 
of Brahma associated with Fire ceremonies. The dance, how- 
ever, does not take place at the time of his festival, but early in 
September. This is the time for Snake worship, and coincides 
with a similar dance performed by the Navajo Indians in Ame- 
rica, and with the festival of Snakes in India. Both the time 
of year, and the serpentine character of the dance give this 
impression. The festival in the Punjaub takes place in the zo- 
diacal month of Aug: Sept:. 

Many mythological beings are associated with the City of 
London, and elsewhere, and these may be seen to this day, 
their heads often adorned with Fruit and Flowers emblems 
of the Fertility Cult. 

In Copenhagen, not far from the King's palace, there is 
an old building which was once the palace of a Count. This is 
ornamented with Flowers and Fruit, but still more striking are 
the Elephant-heads, the trunks encircling Fruit-pods. The Ele- 
phant must once have been Ganesh, the Elephant-headed Ferti- 
lity deity of India! 

The London Stone, now outside the church of St. Swithin, 
is of immense antiquity, and very little remains of it. This 
pillarstone was a huge monolith at one time, and, in all pro- 
bability, was looked upon as a habitation of the Sun-god, Lugh, 
father, or husband of Themis, the river Thames. 

Lugdunum, the Fort of London, is named after Lugh, or 
Lug, also Ludgate where a hotel sign still exhibits the name of 
King Lud. Lugh's name, in one or other of its various forms, 
appears in many places throughout the country, including 
Lydd, in Kent, Lydney, in Gloucestershire; and Lyddington, 
in Rutlandshire; also in the surnames Lug and Lydiard. 
Lugh, or Lot, is king of the mythical region of Lochlann. 
In the old MS., the Battle of V entry, Lugh is called King of 
the World ! It is related how Conn went to the palace of Lugh, 
in the LandL of Sidh, outside of which was a Golden Tree. 


Conn had never seen anyone so tall, and so beautiful as Lugh. 

If Lugh and Budh are identical Lugh is part of Arthur 
(Narayana) . The Indian Budh is part of Narayana who wields 
the spiritual Sword for the dispelling of Darkness, and the 
letting in of Light, intellectual as well as physical. 

The Seven Stars of the Great Bear are the Seven Cele- 
brated Rishis. This circumpolar constellation in the latitude 
of London is the Plough-share, Charles 5 Wain, or Arthur's 
Wain; and in the Indian Pur anas it represents the Seven 
Rishis. The Wain is known in Sanskrit as Sakata, a Cart, or 
Waggon. St. George, closely connected with these figures, and 
with London, seems also to be associated in this setting with 
the mythic character of Ploughman. 

As a carved figure in Westminster Abbey St. Nicholas is 
seen carrying a Baby in a Basket. May it not be that this Baby 
is Lugh brought forward from an ancient legend in which he 
is said to have been placed in a Basket at his birth, and thrown 
into a river or the sea. (The Cosmic Waters). He is borne 
by St. Nicholas, the Patron Saint of Children, who is possibly 
his father, Eochu, the counterpart of Kartikeya, Guardian 
deity of little Children, and Babies. 

This is definitely a Fertility allegory, and the Basket is 
the Receptacle of the Earth Mother, containing the human 

The Serpent deity, Peredur (Sir Perceval) corresponds with 
Cuchulinn in some respects, and is probably another form of 
the same deity. Pururava is a king, and so may Peredur have 
been in an allegorical sense. He wears a golden Tore round 
his neck indicating that he is a deity, otherwise, an ideal being, 
but not a god in the sense that we understand the word God. 

The Abbey contains an allegorical figure of a bearded man 
in armour, over which are the Mass vestments. This image is 
said to represent All Hallows; and it occurs twice in the Abbey. 
This allegorical representation of a Priest-Warrior is not often 
seen. In an Aryan light the Priest- Warrior is both a Brahmin 
and a Kshatriya, a member 'of the first two main castes of 

75 - 

Hindu India. Agni is a Priest- Warrior, and a member of both 

Peredur, apparently, is the son of Lugh (Mercury), the 
son of Ethne (Tara, Venus), the daughter of Vran, the Ocean, 
corresponding to Pururava, who is the son of Budh (Mercury), 
the son of Tara (Venus), the daughter of Varuna, the Ocean. 

Among the Kelts the Seed is allegorized as the Apple, and 
Avallach, or Avalon, is the Apple Orchard containing the 
symbolic Fruit; it is the Holy Grail in a Fertility aspect, Tir- 
nan-Og, or the Land of the Ever- Young. 

In India Brahma, the Creator, is the Seed, or Fructifier. 
The Apple-tree in Europe is a reflection of the sacred Jambu- 
tree; and Avallach of Avaloka. Avaloka, or Avalohana is the 
act of Seeing, or Looking into; and I think the connection may 
be noticed in regard to Eve in the Garden of Eden. When she 
tasted the Apple her eyes were opened, and the same know- 
ledge came to her as to Gwion Bach in the Land of the Kelts, 
when he dipped his fingers into the Cauldron of Keridwen 
(the Holy Grail) and tasted of the Seeds of Knowledge. But 
in the case of Eve the Fruit was forbidden because the ac- 
count is not being given by Aryans, but by the religious body 
holding the Judaic faith, that which replaced Aryanism in 
Palestine in the same way as Christianity replaced Aryanism 
among the Kelts. 

As the Seed, or Fructifier Brahma is represented by Phala. 
The Keltic deity, Fal, who was the occupant of the Stone of 
Destiny at Tara, is probably a representation of Phala, or 

The Abbey of Westminster is said to be on the site of a 
temple to Apollo. It may have been this to the Romans, but 
before their time the presiding deity was probably Fal, called 
Phol on the Continent, and of whom Apollo is the Greek form. 
Fal must have been known in the British Isles long before 
Apollo had any deifical existence. Fal may have evolved into 
St. Paul in later times as frequently we find St. Peter and 
St. Paul united. Westminster Abbey is dedicated to St. Peter, 


and the Cathedral of London (distinct from Westminster), to 
St. Paul. Fala, a combined parish with Soutra in Midlothian, 
is probably a shrine in honour of Fal, whose Stone of Destiny 
followed him to England. St. Peter and St. Paul are the Patron 
Saints of the church at North Curry, in Somerset, as in many 
other instances, also of the old church at Baden-Baden in 
the Black Forest, amidst Keltic and Druidic surroundings. 
Near to the church is the Drachengasschen (Dragon's Lane). 

Fal and Peredur are two forms of Brahma, the Son, if they 
are the Aryan Phala and Pururava. 

In the early Keltic versions of the Grail legend Vran, the 
Fisher king, is Guardian of the Sanct Greal, corresponding to 
Varuna of India, who is Guardian of the Cosmic Ocean. 
Both Vran and Varuna sometimes appear as triple-faced. 
Varuna, who possesses a name mentioned among those of the 
Naga tribes, is Regent of the West, and in mythological spheres, 
he is Lord of all Seas, Rivers, Streams and Oceans; and his 
consort, Varuni, is Queen of the Aqueous Empire. 

Ripon, in Yorkshire, is called Rhypum in the Chronicles 
of the Venerable Bede. At Boroughbridge, about three miles 
away, there are three huge Druidical pillars in the form of 
Arrows, and with legends of the Car Deisal, or Way of the 
Sun, attaching to them. The Sun-wise passage is represented 
by the Swastika symbol of the Nagas. 

Following an ancient custom, a Horn is blown from the 
Four Corners of the Market-place in Ripon by the Wakeman 
at nine o'clock when the Curfew Bell is ringing from the cathe- 
dral. Four Corners, or Four views of the universe are con- 
nected with the Hindu Brahma. He is sometimes given Four 
Faces, as the only way of representing the outlook in stone, 
or wood. 

The venerable edifice at Ripon is both a cathedral, and a 
minster, and is dedicated to St. Peter and St. Wilfred, the 
former being the earlier dedication. Until quite recently Apples 
used to be given during service time to the congregation in 
the cathedral on Boxing Day at the Yule-tide season. 

Vran, or Bran, grandfather of Peder, or Peredur, is Lord 


of the Knowledge-giving Salmon; and both the cathedral of 
St. Peter at Ripon, and the Abbey of St. Peter at Westminster 
have Salmon legends attaching to them. 

Aillil, (Alain or Peredur) casts a Ring into the water, and 
it is swallowed by a Salmon. 

Peredur, or Fal seems to have been the central figure of a 
Druidic settlement at Westminster, on which site the Abbey 
now stands, and also the church of St. Margaret, whose em- 
blem is a Dragon. 

A drawing dating back to the thirteenth century, and re- 
presenting St. Christopher bearing the Holy Child across the 
stream, has been discovered recently in the Abbey; the Child 
is holding an Apple. 

During the age-old Coronation ceremonies in Westminster 
Abbey the ritual includes the king's visit to the Four Corners 
of the Theatre, an action full of Aryan significance; and it 
may not be irrelevant to quote the following from the Ma- 

The great Pururava held sway over thirteen islands of 
the sea. The Paurava line was descended from Pururava, 
and the founder was King Dushmanta, gifted with great 
energy. And he was the protector of the earth bounded by 
the four seas. And that king had sway over the four quarters 
of the world. And he was lord also of various regions in the 
midst of the sea. 

The shrine which may have preceded the Abbey of St. 
Peter at Westminster was probably dedicated to Peredur, as a 
form of Brahma the Creator. A temple to Brahma must have 
a door on all four sides the Four Doors of the Sky. This 
might explain the mystery (as it is at present) of the ritual of 
the Four Corners which takes place at the Coronation cere- 
mony for British kings. 

The most solemn part of the Coronation service and the 
oldest is the Sacring. or Hallowing of the king, or possibly, 
in his earliest form, the Priest-king. This ancient ritualistic 

*) See Adi Parva of the Mahdbhdrata, Section Ixviii. 


practice suggests that at some remote period, the British king 
was also a Priest. 

During the Sacring the king is divested of his mantle, under 
which is a suit of White Satin; the Colobium Sindonis is 
slipped over this. It is a vesture of fine, white cambric, or 
lawn, without sleeves, or with short sleeves, fastening with 
three buttons on the shoulder. 

The Aryan conception of a New spiritual Birth seems to 
be the import of this part of the ceremony. The garment is 
actually in the form of the Robe of an Infant. 

The crowning over the sacred Stone of Fal, who had to 
do with the destiny of Kings, and who, apparently, emerged 
from the Indian Phala, shows once more the non-existence 
of a sharp dividing line between Past, Present and Future, 
or between one form of religion and another. 

The Hindu Coronation ceremony is described in the 
Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, so it is small wonder that 
our ceremony should be recognized as of such immense anti- 
quity. This Indian account is translated by Martin Haug, and 
there is also a description in the Agni Purana; the Vedic 
formula is very elaborate. 

That the throne at Westminster should have the feet of a 
Lion is another indication of the Aryan origin of the cere- 
mony, although in rather later times the royal thrones of Egypt, 
Assyria, Babylonia, Chaldea and Persia and other Eastern 
countries were all provided with Lions' feet. The Sinhasa, 
or royal seat in the Hindu ceremonies is made of Gold, and 
Sinha is a Sanskrit word for Lion. The royal Sceptre is a 
Rajadanda (the Rod of Yama) indicating Dharma, or Religi- 
ous Law. From this may have been produced our word Rod. 
Mace is probably a corruption of Musala, the Pestle in 
regard to a Pestle and Mortar, and an attribute of Siva. The 
Curtana, the chief of the Three Swords brought for the Coro- 
nation at Westminster, or wherever it is held, is the Sword of 
Mercy, and has a similar name to the Sanskrit word Kartana 
(pronounced curtana). This word is derived from the Sans- 
krit root Kart-to cut; in ancient times the Kartana was not a 


Sword of Mercy, apparently, but a weapon used for human 
sacrifice. This, however, seems to be the origin of the English 

In former times the Curtana was carried on these occasions 
by the Earls of Chester; and it is worth while to notice that 
the ancient city of Chester was known at one time by the purely 
Sanskrit name of Deva, which means God. 

The English word Vestment may owe its origin to the 
Sanskrit Vasa, meaning to clothe. Our word rites has more 
than probably emanated from Rita, wife of Dyus Pitara, the 
Sky-god. Dis Pater was the Keltic name for Dyus Pitara. Rita, 
personifying the Laws of Nature, is Sarasvati. 

At Scottish coronation ceremonies a genealogical recitation 
formed part of the proceedings; and in olden times this may 
also have taken place in England. A genealogical recitation in 
regard to both the ancestries of the bride and bridegroom 
formed part of the marriage ceremonials in ancient India ( Vide 
the Ramdyana, Book I., describing Rama's marriage) and it 
is still in vogue amongst the higher castes of Hindus. 

Peredur, Aillil and Cuchulinn, apparently one personality, 
possess symbolic Rings. At the Coronation ceremony in West- 
minster Abbey the King is presented with a Ring which be- 
comes his own personal property. This Ring has one large 
Sapphire, and four long-shaped Rubies, encircled with Dia- 
monds; the colours are therefore Red, White and Blue. The 
design is a Cross within a Circle which is known as the Cross 
of St. George; and allegorically is the Ring of the Priest- 
Warrior, Defender of the Faith! 

These were the colours which Sir Perceval (Peredur) saw 
in a vision on the summit of a mountain, when pursuing his 
quest for the Holy Grail. They are the colours of the Serpents 
of Vasuki's race, but, apparently, not of all the Serpent tribes, 
and clans. Vasuki was a Serpent king of the Netherworld 
(Patala), and Red, White and Blue are the colours of the 
great Mother in her anatomical aspect. 

Eochu, priest-king at Tara, received a Ring from his priest- 
ly father, Breas, who, himself, received one from his father. 


The symbolic Ring of Kentigern is still to be seen in the 
Glasgow coat-of-arms in company with a Bird, a Bell, a Tree 
and a Fish. 

It is stated in Indian writings that Ila is both father and 
mother of Pururava,*) and also that he is the son of Budh 
and Ila. There is a purely mythological tale about Ila's change 
of sex from a Man to a Woman.**) It seems probable that 
Alain, Aila or Ila of the Kelts is herself the Holy Grail. In 
India Aila is the son of Ila. Grail may once have been Ail, 
or Ailam because G and Gr sometimes creep in at the 
beginning of a Gaelic word. This may have happened in the 
case of Aine and Grainne. 

Aila means the son of Ila, and Aida means the son of 
Ida, the same personality. The Keltic counterpart of Pururava 
as Aida may be Peredur as Aed, or Aidan, the Fiery Torch. 

When the Aryan religion was replaced by Christianity it 
may be that the apostle Peter, with a similar name, caused a 
blending of the two religions, when the Abbot Melitus was 
instructed from papal headquarters to erect Christian churches 
on the sites of the old shrines. 

Southern Scotland and Northern England had much inter- 
religious association. Pedwell, in Northumberland, near Nor- 
ham-on-Tweed, is still known for the service which takes place 
annually at the commencement of the salmon fishery, when 
the net is cast upon the swirling waters of the Tweed ; Ped- 
well is manifestly named after Peredur, or Peder. The Percy- 
lieu Stone, originally at the Salmon Well, Hillhead of Clatt, 
Aberdeenshire, is incised with Fish and Horseshoe symbols, 
and seems to combine the names of both Peredur and Lugh. 

The English word Feather appears to have come from 
the name of Peredur, the Son-god. Gill Pheadair in Galloway 
is translated Kil Feather, the Shrine of Peter. 

Sir Herbert Maxwell explains Castle Feather in Whithorn 
as Peter's Castle. The Abbey of Whithorn is in Glen Luce, 

*) Adi Parva of the Mahdbhdrata, Section Ixxv. 
**) See Matter, Myth and Spirit*, pp. 39, 40. 


Wigtonshire, and is one of the oldest ecclesiastical centres in 
the British Isles, but at the Reformation the Abbot and his 
community were driven out and killed, and all records were, 
destroyed. The name Luce seems to be derived from that 
of Lugh. 

Castle Feather suggests a parallel with Featherstone Castle 
in Northumberland which has Druidical stones at its gateway. 
In the vicinity of Featherstone is Proudy Hill, apparently 
traditional as it is the scene of Beacon Fires on festive oc- 
casions; the name might be a corruption of Peredur. 

The old family of Fetherston, or Fetherstonhaugh, have 
Three Feathers in their coat-of-arms. These Feathers of Pere- 
dur, the allegorical Son-god, evidently became in much later 
times those of the Prince of Wales, heir to the British throne. 

Kilpeter in South Uist, Hebrides, also indicates association 
with Peter, or Peredur; and another shrine to this mythic 
character evidently existed in Kilpeter in Renfrewshire. This 
place joined the parish of Kilallan, thus uniting in nomen- 
clature, and possibly in worship, the deities, Ila and her son, 

In Lothbury, one of the streets of Lugh's town (London), 
and with a Keltic name embodying that of Lugh, there was 
found an ancient Silver Bowl which may be allied, mytho- 
logically, to the Silver Cauldron brought by the Picts, or Pitts 
to Britain. 

The Silver bowls of a sacred nature in Pictland have a 
counterpart in the huge Gundestrup Bowl which was dis- 
covered in Jutland and which is now in the Danish National 
Museum in Copenhagen. This great silver vessel may have 
obtained its name from the Sanskrit Kunda, a sacrificial Bowl. 
It is embossed with mythological representations, and by kind 
permission of the Museum authorities, I am able to show the 
details of two of the plaques on this ancient Cauldron. 

The deifical figure on these plaques is thought to be Cer- 
nunnos, and it is suggested that he represents the Sky-god. It 
seems more probable, however, that Cernunnos, as seen, on 
this bowl, is Herne, the Hunter, with whom he is sometimes 

Dorothea Chaplin 6 


identified. The observations in regard to the figures on these 
plaques made by my Indian correspondent, Mr. Palit, have 

Gundestrup Bowl. 

helped me towards the conclusion that a divine Hunter is the 
more likely aspect, although both are forms of Siva. 

The figure in Plaque 1. on the Gundestrup Bowl is sitting 
on the ground, in oriental fashion, with the left leg bent like 
the right one, but a little more extended. The right leg is bent 
with the toes touching the inner aspect of the lower calf. Both 


arms are bent at the elbows with the forepart of the arm raised, 
the hands being on a level with the shoulders. The figure is 
holding two objects. Within the clenched fist of the right hand 
is a circular symbol; and in the left, a Serpent; round the neck 
is a Tore, indicating divinity. The face is oval and clean-shaven 
with the lips closed, the whole countenance showing a peaceful 
and contemplative attitude, or meditative mood. The hair ap- 
pears to be arranged in coils, or matted strands which cover 
a portion of the forehead. Two straight horns with six branches 
on each appear to have protruded from the matted hair on 
the top of the head. The two horns of the stag close by are of 
similar height, and also have six branches. The artist may have 
caused the stag, standing close to the figure, purposely to 
resemble the deity in order to indicate a close affinity between 

The figure is clothed in a close-fitting striped garment, 
with a girdle round the waist. The Ring is furnished with two 
heads, and is rather like the anklets worn by women in Upper 
India; it appears to be serpentine in character, the two heads 
furnishing two knob-like ends, one probably male, and the 
other female. 

On the right hand of the figure above the stag is an ante- 
lope, fashioned like a horse; and which possibly has a double 
meaning. It has a mane, two horns and a long tail with a 
chain, or rope hanging in front. 

On the left of the figure is a boar with unnaturally long 
legs, and either claws, or paws instead of hoofs, suggesting 
the intermixture of a Wolf symbol; the tail is long and rope- 
like. The boar, like the stag on the left, is looking rather af- 
fectionately at the figure, and is close to it. Just above is a 
tiger in the attitude of stalking some quarry, with his mouth 
gaping. In front of the tiger is an unclothed boy riding bare- 
backed on a dolphin; his hair is in the same style as that 
of the sitting figure. In front of the boy is another antelope, 
similar to the one on the other side. Below these figures are 
two lions, heavily maned on the breast, facing each other in a 
semi-rampant position, but in a playful mood. The background 


is decorated with what may be intended for a Lotus in triads, 
as each group, consisting of three buds, is surrounded by water. 

The animal above the serpent is distinctly a boar with bris- 
tles on its back, and a snout which has an indication of one 
tush, just above the nose, although the legs and feet are not 
those of a boar. 

The naked boy riding on the dolphin looks like a type of 
one of the followers, or attendants of Siva. 

Taking the picture as a whole it seems to represent Siva, 
in Keltic form, in the attitude of an ascetic, in his manifes- 
tation of Pasupati, or Lord of Beasts. The animals here pour- 
trayed are those which live on land in water, and on swampy 
ground; there are grass-eaters, flesh-eaters and mixed-eaters 
the boar. 

The second plaque with its frolicsome animals, apparently 
also represents Cernunnos. In Fig. 2 he appears to be deeply 
sunk in meditation, and to be making a mudra gesture. The 
oriental character of this representation is emphasized by the 
two conventional animals like elephants, and by the two 

The picture of Cernunnos, in Fig. 1, embossed on the 
Gundestrup Bowl, is a replica of that in Sir John Marshall's 
book on Mohenjo Daro, in Sind. As a picture it is precisely the 
same, although the style of the drawing differs considerably, 
and here the elephants are unmistakable. It is to be seen fairly 
frequently at several places in Southern India. 

A carving at Rheims, in Northern France, depicts Cernun- 
nos in the cross-legged attitude of an ascetic, with Horns, Tree, 
Deer and Bull, five attributes of Siva. Cernunnos, in Keltic 
regions, seems to take the form of the Great Hunter, or Lord 
of Beasts, Siva. 

Chapter 6. 


Taltiu was the daughter of the great and good Magh Mor, 
and the latter personage, although represented as a male deity, 
has a name which sounds as if it might have emanated from 
Mahamaya. The name of Taltiu may be perceived in one or 
two places not far from London, the town of Lugh, her foster- 

Tilaburg (the Free Town of Tila) is the old name for Til- 
bury and is derived from Taltiu ; and Tilty, in Essex, is called 
after this goddess. The present old church of St. Mary, at 
Tilty, is on a very ancient site; it is a small chapel which was 
formerly a hostel for student-pilgrims, thus it would appear to 
have been a pre-Christian settlement, at one time, with Taltiu 
as the presiding deity. 

In County Meath, Ireland, there was formerly a place cal- 
led Teilte, a seat of royalty. This place was famous for its 
great Lammas Fair, held about the first of August (Lammas- 
tide). This was one of the four festivals of the Sun-god, Lugh. 

In Truro, Cornwall, there is a Lammas Street, and also a 
Lunar Terrace, names one does not meet with in non-Keltic 

There is a town called Lugh in Italian Somaliland, the 
name corresponding precisely with that of the British form of 
Mercury. It is also found as a Sanskrit word, as an alternative 


to Laghu*} but whether there is any connection between 
Laghu and Budh of India, I do not know. 

Lugh is on the river Juba, close to the Abyssinian border. 
J and Y, also B and V being interchangeable Juba 
emerges as the same word as the Sanskrit Yuva! Two more 
names in this African region suggests Sanskrit origin, Mongalle 
and Sudan. There is an island called Mingala in the parish of 
Barra, in the Outer Hebrides; and that, and the African 
Mongalle might be derived from Mangala (Mars), a form of 
Kartikeya and Skanda. Then, as regards Sudan, Sudha is 
the (celestial?) food of the Nagas; it is also the beverage of the 
gods, which places the Nagas in a high position! Sudhansu 
is the Moon as the repository of Nectar. Sudha may be the 
origin of Sudan, and also of the British surname Soddy. 

Egypt is believed by some Indians to have been part of 
Bharatavarsha,*) and it is thought possible that the Nile was 
sacred to Nila Sarasvati (the Blue Sarasvati). The Nile was 
called Hafi at some ancient period. At the present time the 
sacred river Ganges has sixteen names, and it is quite possible 
that the Nile had two at the same time. 

If the semi-mythical Taliessin is correct the early Cymric 
people came from Asia, not from Egypt, and there are many 
signs that he was right. 

That part of the African continent which contains the Zim- 
babwe ruins, Mashonaland in Southern Rhodesia, appears to 
be older than Egypt, as Egypt; possibly it is older than India. 

One may notice that Scotland has a Glen Affric, and the 
Isle of Man, a Princess Afreeca. As P and F are inter- 
changeable in the British Isles, it suggests a like transformation 
in regard to the name Africa, because that continent was 
formerly called Aparica, a name composed of two Sanskrit 

Glen Affric is mentioned in old Gaelic records as Affaric, 
practically Aparica. 

*) See Sir Monier William's Sanskrit Dictionary. 


To the South Australian aboriginal apa means water, 
and all may be connected in the far-off past with Apah, or 
Narayana in feminine form, the Cosmic Ocean. 

Narayana, as Apah, or Mahamaya, seems to have been the 
ulterior inspiration for the South Australian word, the name 
of the continent of Africa, an ethereal princess in the Isle of 
Man and a forest, glen, loch and river in Scotland ! 

The meaning of Narayana is One whose abode is on 
Water; but Water in this connection is not the composite 
liquid known by the chemical formula of H20, but is the 
Primordial Cause of the Cosmos, personified by the female 
aspect of Brahm, the One and only God. 

The name Somaliland resembles that of Sumali, uncle of 
the notorious Ravana of the Ramdyana who made adventurous 
militant expeditions into the outer world. A tribe called 
Sumallika is mentioned in the Bhishma Parva of the 

Vasuki is sometimes referred to as King of the Nagas and 
sometimes as King of the Pannagas. The legal word pannages 
may be allied to the word Pannaga, of Sanskrit literature. From 
Pannaga may have come into being the place-name Penge 
and, as regards the first syllable, the surname Pankhurst. 
Besides Vasuki, the following are all mentioned as 
Naga names, Pingala, Nila, Karkotaka, Ugraka and Venin, 
showing the importance of the Nagas in very early times. 
Venin may be compared to Venom. 

It seems probable that the Shoshonee, or Snake tribes of 
America took their name from the Aryan Sesha, or Shesha, 
King of the Serpent race. According to Sanskrit writings 
Brahma, the Creator, persuaded Sesha to pass through the 
earth in order to reach Patala (the Netherworld), and this may 
have been a mythological way of describing a journey to the 
Antipodes. Sesha was adjured by Brahma, to support the earth, 
and this mythological suggestion may have indicated emigra- 
tion, and attention to the welfare of the sons of Earth, in this 
case the new settlers in Patala. (America?). 

The Shoshonee tribe was a very large one, the parent of 


many North American tribes and clans. The State of Okla- 
homa, which seems to have derived its name from the Sanskrit 
language, includes a place of the name of Tulsa seemingly 
obtained from the sacred Tulsi, or Basil-plant of India. Tulasi 
is looked upon as one of the wives of Vishnu. What is the 
origin of Tulse Hill, in London? 

The Nagas, looked upon as treasure-hunters, may have 
given us our word nugget, more particularly so as the hunt 
was for gold! 

These proprietors of the Swastika emblem seem also to have 
done some work in Fiji as recently a giant monolith has been 
brought to light on one of the islands of the Fiji group; and 
Swastikas, four inches deep, are incised upon this great relic 
of the past. 

There is plenty of evidence of Naga footsteps both in 
America and in the British Isles, through place-names, and 
also through the study of sacred animals and other symbols 
associated with them. 

Achil Island in County Mayo, Ireland, the Ochil Hills in 
Scotland and the Welsh place-name Uchil are thought to 
be derived from the same root; they all resemble the Sanskrit 
word Akhil (Akhila), which means A11, or the Universe. 

It may be that the surname Baldwin originates from the 
Keltic god, Balder; that Loth, Louth and Lowther are 
the result of the Aryan habit of deriving names from a deity, 
and that they emanated from that of Lugh, or Loth; Shar- 
man from Shaman, or Saman (Yama) ; Chaundy and 
Cundy from the Moon-god Chand, or Can, and so on. The 
Irish surname Ram may be derived from the Indian Ram, or 
Rama; Ramsbury, in Wiltshire, suggests the borough of Ram; 
and more significant still is Ram's Island off County Wexford, 
in Ireland. There was a Rama tribe in South America, I do 
not know whether it is still in existence. 

The name of Puloman, a Danava, might be linked with 
that of the English family of Pulman. According to some ac- 
counts, Puloman is the father of Suchi, wife of Indra, and who 


is Queen of the Celestials. The surname Such may owe its 
origin to Suchi. 

Morris, as a surname as well as a kind of dance, may 
have evolved from Marut, of whom Indra, King of the gods, 
is the Leader. The church at Abbot's Bromley, with its dedi- 
cation to St. Nicholas, suggests a connection with the Maruts 
through the Deer emblem. 

In the Journal of the Folk-dance and Song Society (Vol.11, 
1935) there is a report of a lecture by Miss V. Alford in which 
the lecturer makes the statement that: We may accept without 
question the derivation of 'Morris' from 'Morisca'. Later on in 
her lecture she says that the Christians and Moors did not turn 
into the Morris Dancers of Hijar, but the dancers into Chris- 
tians and Moors, and this some time after the re-conquest of 
Tcruel in 1711. 

Miss Alford tells us that the Santa Oriosa dancers repudiate 
the name of Moors, yet she says: They are Morris Dancers 
if ever there were any, and they are attached, not to a fight, 
but to a miracle-working, pre-Christian goddess. Why then 
should MorrLs be derived from Morisca which is a word 
denoting Spanish Mahomedans of Moorish origin? It will be 
remembered that Mahomedans entirely disapprove of anything 
in the nature of a goddess. Therefore the theory does not seem 
very consistent. The battle between the Moors and the Chri- 
stians is probably a late form of a very ancient ceremony of 
Aryan origin. 

From whence originated the names Montmartre and 
Martres? Montmartre, on the outskirts of Paris, is a district 
full of legendary tradition. 

At Martres, near Toulouse, there is a sacred Well where 
it is customary to bathe the eyes. This well is dedicated to St. 
Vidian whose image, in the Aryan fashion, is immersed in 
water on certain occasions. Who is St. Vidian, possibly allied 
to St. Vigean of the British Isles, who is also the proprietor of 
a Healing Well? 

The Druids of old divided themselves into three sections 
among whom were the Physicians. These doctors were called 


Vaids,*) and with this name we may compare the Indian 
word Vaidya which, to this day, is an appellation of the Hindu 
physician, in Bengal. Siva, mythologically, is Vaidyanath, or 
Lord of Physicians. 

The Vaidyas were represented at the International Congress 
of Medicine, held in London in 1913, by Mr S. M. Mitra.** ) 
His paper covered the Ayurvedic system for the whole of India, 
which, though veiled in Mythology, includes valuable 
medicines, from the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms, 
and would be a great asset to our own. 

Is it not probable that Vaid is a contraction of Vaidya, 
and that the names Vidian and Vigean are allied to it? 

A Mirror is the invariable accompaniment of the Morris 
Dances together with Ribbons and Bells. I have heard no 
suggestion as to the signification of the Mirror. In India it is 
the sure cognisance of Gauri, second wife of Siva. 

The Morris Dancers are more particularly connected with 
Siva if these are in the nature of Fire festivals. Their colours, 
Red and White, are those of Agni, of Siva's family, and they 
carry the emblem of Siva's second wife, Gauri, Durga, Uma or 
Parvati. Basques used to dance Morris Sword dances at St. 
Sebastian, and later on higher up, in a more remote region. 
They wore Red and White for these dances. 

Among the many incised stones in the county of Morayshire 
in Scotland four were found on the promontory of Burghead, 
and on these there are Bulls of conventional design which bear 
a striking resemblance to the Bull Nandi, vehicle of Siva. 
Burghead used to be called by the Pictish name of the Broch; 
and, apparently it can vie with any part of Scotland as regards 
antiquity. At least two of these stones with Bull carvings are 
preserved in museums, one in Burghead, and one in Edinburgh 
in the Museum of Antiquities. The Mirror is also seen in the 
neighbourhood of Burghead, and surely a symbolic link must 
exist between this and the Bull, allegorically representing the 
emblems of Gauri and Siva. 

*) See Toland's History of the Druids* (1813). 
**) See Congress Reports (Hodder and Stoughton). 


The Clavie ceremony, a festival of the dim and distant 
past, but carried on at the present day, makes a most impressive 
picture as one stands on the hillock overlooking Dourie Mound 
where the altar is situated. Photos taken on the mound itself 
are not nearly so effective. 

The Fire on the Altar flares up brilliantly, and finally 
the blazing tar-barrel rolls down the hill, while the inhabitants 
snatch lighted faggots from the flames, for luck! Burghead is 
not the only place where this custom was in vogue; it was also 
kept in some parts of England; but on the promontory on the 
Moray Firth, close to the water it produces a remarkable scene 
with the Beacon Fire visible for miles around from both sea 
and land. 

The Bulls, the New Fire, for which no match may be used, 
when it is lighted, and many other signs on the Broch point 
to a former connection with Siva worship. 

Many places in England with the prefix Brock possess 
churches dedicated to St. Peter. Brockhall, or Brockhole, in 
the hundred of Nobottle-grove, Northamptonshire, for instance, 
and Lee-Brockhurst, in Suffolk. Broxash, Herefordshire, has 
an ancient church dedicated to St. Peter, who was also the 
Patron Saint of a church near Burghead. Brooke, in the soke 
of Oakham, has a chapel of St. Peter; also Brooke in the 
hundred of Clavering, in Norfolk, the place-name indicating 
association with the Clavie ceremony. 

Brockthrop, Brookrup, or Brookthrop in Gloucestershire, 
unite the two forms of the word broch and brook, and 
the surnames corresponding to these are probably also of 
Pictish origin. 

The ancient stone Circles called the Clava Cairns, are to 
be found near Nairn, and Burghead. It will be remembered 
that the Earls of Cawdor are associated by Shakespeare with 
this district, and the Clava circles. Cador sprang to horse as 
spark does to Fire,*) and was probably once the allegorical 
figure of Eochu, or Kartikeya, who sprang from Fire. 

*) Layamon's Brut, 214812. 


Near the village of Lumphanan (Llanfinnan), twenty- 
seven miles from Aberdeen, is the Well of Macbeth, and the 
Cairn of Macbeth is on the slope of Perkhill, less than a mile 
South-West of Lumphanan. Macbeth appears to be an alle- 
gorical figure also. 

The Macbeths, or Bethunes, hereditary physicians in the 
Western Isles, are one of the oldest families in Burghead, on the 
other side of Scotland! 

Dunsinane, in Perthshire, connected by Shakespeare with 
Macbeth, is a great prehistoric hill-fort on the Sidlaw Hills, a 
name suggesting the Land of Sidh. 

Farther South, in the valley of the Manor Water, five miles 
from Peebles, is an ancient British fort called Macbeth's Castle. 
On the top is a rock-basin of the kind connected with Healing; 
and thus there is a chain of evidence to proclaim the dominance 
of one religious community in pre-Christian times throughout 
the British Isles, and beyond them. 

Peterhead, in the district of Buchan in Aberdeenshire is 
the most easterly town in Scotland, a situation which may have 
caught the attention of the imaginative Picts. Apparently, it 
was named after Peredur, who in these islands merged into the 
form of St. Peter. In 1560, Peterhead was a small fishing vil- 
lage, and the peninsula on which it stands originally belonged 
to the Abbey of Deer.*) 

There is a well at Peterhead which is said to contain a 
greater quantity of Muriate of Iron than any other spring 
water which has as yet been discovered; nevertheless, in these 
days, the well is disused, dirty and well-nigh forgotten. 

When from a prehistoric point of view one looks at Britain 
as a whole, and not merely in sections, one is struck by the 
prevalence of mythological names, and of their connection with 
one another in widely different areas. Take Peterhead, for in- 
stance, and this particular well, which is called the Wine Well. 
It is one of the Six Wonders of Buchan, and may be compared 

*) See An Historical Account of Peterheack, by James Arbuthnot, Jun. 
Esq. (1815). 


with the legendary history of the small river Alan in the South- 
West corner of Wales. Tradition tells how the symbolic Wine 
of the gods flowed through the bed of this sacred stream ! 

The Wine Well at Peterhead, named after Peder, or 
Peredur, was apparently regarded in ancient times as con- 
taining a divine beverage; and the allegorical stream in Wales, 
containing the Wine of the gods, is obviously framed Alan after 
Ila, the mother of Peredur. Peredur is Alain, or Aila, the son 
of Ila who corresponds to the Indian Ila (Lakshmi). Ila is 
the great Earth Mother, the Ail, or Grail? A mythological as- 
sociation between Peterhead and St. David's seems fairly 
evident. The Sanskrit word Ila, Ira, or Ida means Earth, 
Wine and Water, and Aila probably gave us our word 
Ale This national drink enters into many an old English 

There is a church dedicated to St. Peter at Allendale, in 
Northumberland. This place stands on a hill on the eastern 
bank of the river Allen, and there are numerous signs of 
springs in the neighbourhood. As regards nomenclature, North- 
umbria may be associated with Umbria, in Italy*) and Om- 
bersley, in Worcestershire,**) and all of them with Uma, or 
Gauri, forms of the Mother Goddess. 

A church at Ashby-Parva, in Leicestershire, and another at 
Ayott-St. Peter, or Ayott-Parva, in Hertfordshire, have St. Peter 
as their Patron Saint. Parva is Sanskrit but, in this case, may 
be a corruption of Peredur, as it is an alternative to Peter. 

St. David, in the form of Dewi Sant, appears to be a fol- 
lower of the great Aryan Mother. His father is said to be 
Sanddhe, and it looks as if the families of Sanders, Sanderson 
and Shand may have had Sanddhe as their tribal, or deifical 

The Leek, or Luce, a Welsh national symbol, and also that 
of one of the Welsh regiments, may be connected with Lugh, 
or Luce. Sanddhe ordered the soldiery to place a Leek in their 

*) See p. 62. 
**) See p. 11. 


caps, and this action had some allegorical significance. The 
Leek, or Daffodil, represents Light, or the Rising Sun, and 
produces David, the Rosy Dawn of Day, and the Dawn of 
Spiritual Enlightenment. 

One may compare Sanddhe and the Leek with the Indian 
Sandhya. This Sanskrit word literally means the Juncture of 
Night with Day, and of Day with Night. Sandhya is a name 
for the goddess Durga, but when applied to this deity the word 
stands for Morning and Evening Prayers. 

In consideration of the fact that Sanddhe's men are told 
to don the Leek, or Light of Day, it looks as if .Sanddhe is the 
personification of these Junctures; and that his son, David, is 
the personal representative of the Dawn of a New Under- 
standing, in the learned ecclesiastical centre which afterwards 
took his name. 

St. David was born in an allegorical manner; his mother 
evidently personifying the Cosmic Waters in the form of the 
Spring of St. Non. This is the traditional birth-place of David, 
near of kinne to the worthy Arthur, King of England. St. 
Non may be Anne, Annet or Grainne, goddess of sacred 
Springs, the word goddess being purely allegorical, and in 
no way usurping the claims of monotheism. 

Muni (St. Non?) is the sister of Aditi, mother of the Adi- 
tyas, and, in the form of Anne, she is the aunt, or sister of 
King Arthur. 

Morgan le Fay is the sister of Anne, or the same personality. 
The Welsh name Morgan represented a clan in Aberdeen- 
shire, and this Clan Morgan is mentioned in the Book of Deer. 

The families of Sandlands and Sandilands may have formed 
a clan in the distant past, and may have derived their name 
from Sandiliya, and not from any geographical description. 
There is a Sandiliya gotra, or clan in India, derived from a 
famous sage of that name, to which many Brahmins, and a 
few Kshatriyas of Bengal belong. Sandiliya is the father of 
Hutasana (Hu, the Mighty, of Wales?). 

Members of the Clan Allan (believed to be the Stuarts) 


are of royal lineage since time immemorial, and once may have 
claimed descent from the Great Mother, Ila. 

The Aila dynasty of India swelled into gigantic propor- 
tions, and some of their offspring may have formed the Clan 

Scotland is teeming with names of a mythological character. 
The river Cree, or Chree runs through the South-west corner 
of it, Sree, or Shree is Lakshmi, goddess of Prosperity, from 
whom evolved Ceres. The British surname Cree, and the Cree 
Indians in Canada may have received their names from the 
same source. The river Cree in Galloway may once have been 
sacred, impersonating Sree, goddess of Fortune; and one of her 
shrines may have been at Ceres, in Fife. 

Minnigaff, of great antiquity, on the Cree, may have der- 
ived the first part of its name from Muni. All these signs of this 
deity in place-names, may be connected with the multiplicity 
of links in other directions. The Cree flows through Minnigaff 
and Newton Stewart where Lammas-tide is still observed. 

Irvine, on the Ayrshire coast, has an annual Fair of great 
age, and the place was probably named after Erbin, or Ervin, 
grandson of Lugh. 

The Trostan Moors are reminiscent of Trystram, or 
Drustan, associated with Mayfield, in Sussex, and probably also 
with Mayfield in this district. Here is Ellisland, the Land of 
Ila, consort of Lugh, also Sweetbit and Sweetheart Abbey. 

The neighbourhood of Moniaive and Dumfries is rich in 
prehistoric remains, and the Roman camp at Tibber has 
retained its /?n?-Roman name. Arthur's Seat, Lotus Hill, 
Arthur's Loch and Beeswing village are all situated on the 
stretch of land between Glasgow and the Solway Firth; Car- 
gan's Pow (Cargan's Head), Cattan's Loaning and Dun Cow 
village are not far away. 

Crossmichael and Borgue are in the South of Galloway; 
the latter, a village in Kirkcudbright, is described as Tara's 
mighty boro', but I was unable to discover anything more 
relating to this description. 


If one delves deep into the sources of personal and place- 
names while bearing in mind the mythological tendencies of 
our prehistoric forefathers the pursuit is endless, and promises 
a rich harvest. But at this early stage of the study of nomen- 
clature from a mythological point of view, it is impossible to 
do more than make suggestions which at least demonstrate 
mythological unity in many areas, and have as much founda- 
tion as many of the geographical interpretations. 

Across the Solway Firth, and near the Roman Wall is 
Luguvallium, the valley of Lugh, or Lug. Carlisle, associated 
in old ballads with King Arthur, was Luguballa. 

The Isle of Anglesey was the last of the Druidic settlements 
in Britain, and very learned, like the others. The doctrine of 
Pythagoras was taught to the students in this establishment. 
It was situated on the Lands of Lugwy (Lugh?); on which 
is Arthur's Quoit, a stupendous cromlech. This island was also 
called Sena, a Sanskrit word which forms a termination to 
Mahasena and Devasena, names for Kartikeya and 
Shashthi, and possibly Eochu and Edain. Sena means army, 
and applies to the Divine Army of which Skanda, a form of 
Kartikeya, is the generalissimo. 

Bo Find, the sacred Cow of Gaeldom, and the personality 
of Bo Find, or Boinn must be associated with Inisbofind, an 
island off the coast of Galway, in Ireland. The Holy Cow 
represents the fruitful Earth, and is impersonated by Sarasvati 
(Speech), as the wife of Brahma, the Creator. Through Speech 
the Earth produces mental Fruit. 

Aboyne, on Deeside, is thought to be connected with the 
river Boyne, in Ireland, and with Bo Find. There is an antique 
Stone at Aboyne with an inscription in which occur the words 
Maqqo Tal, and these are interpreted by Mr. Diack of Aber- 
deen as MacTal. In The New Road*) by the Scottish 
author, Neil Munro, this passage occurs: Glen Coe was loud 
with running waters falling down the gashes of the bens, the 
curlews whistling, and the echoes of McTala, son of Earth, 

*) See Chapter viii, p. 83. 


who taunts. Whether the Gaelic word Tal, or Tala bears 
any relationship to the Sanskrit word as used in connection 
with Malina Tal and Naini Tal, I do not know. The lake 
Malina Tal, if associated with the sacred stream Malini, is 
in a classical atmosphere. The word Ted in its Sanskrit form 
would be Tola. 

There are several names in Sanskrit for the Earth, one of 
which is Kuh, precisely the same as the German word for 
Cow. The^ Sanskrit word Bhuh represents the Earth as a 
Holy Cow, who, herself, takes several forms. 

The Clan Buchanan might find a connection here with 
regard to their remote ancestry, if they have not already done 
so. In a transitional stage the name seems to have been Bo- 
quhanan, with the Q silent, as in Balquhidder. Previous 
to this the name was in the form of Bohanan, or Bohannan. 
I arrive at this conclusion on account of having met an elderly 
American about two years ago whose family, so he told me, 
had been in Virginia for two(?) centuries. His name was 
Bohanan, and he traced his pedigree to the Scottish family of 
Buchanan. He said that his was the earlier form of the name, 
and that in his family it had never been altered, but had pre- 
served its original form. 

I notice that a book on Yoga has been published recently 
by an Indian, and that the author's name is Behannan; surely 
the Keltic name of Bohannan is associated with it, as also 
the deifical personage Bo Find, or Be Find, Bo, or Bwch, the 
Holy Cow of the Kelts? 

A Scottish word which seems originally to have been con- 
nected with the sacred Cow is bothie. Dr. Grant, in his Scot- 
tish National Dictionary, describes a bothie as any primitive 
shelter of any kind; but, at one time, according to the quota- 
tions given by Dr. Grant, it was a Dairy-house. In this con- 
nection Pennant calls it a bothay. Some accounts tell how it 
was the custom for a dairy-maid to place a rod of the Roan- 
tree over the doorway of the bothay. This custom may have 
been put into practice on Roan Island off the coast of Suther- 
landshire, amongst other localities. 

Dorothea Chaplin 


The word in Gaelic is bothan (pronounced bo-han), 
and this shows clearly the link with Bo, or Bwch, the mystic 
Cow of the Kelts, and also seems to show an affinity with the 
Sanskrit Bhuh. At the present time, Bothan is a British sur- 
name, and probably emanates from the same source. 

The Indian goddess Vinata is the mother of two sons and 
a daughter. One of the sons is Garuda, or Garura, the Eagle; 
and the daughter is Sandamani, a Flash of Lightning. The 
British family of Sandeman may owe their name to this alle- 
gorical personage. 

O gentle Vinata, there is in the midst of the ocean, in a 
remote quarter, a delightful and fair region inhabited by the 

The Serpents have definitely left their mark in this island 
of Britain. Pingal, or Pingala was a Serpent king, and Fingal, 
owning a well near the Serpent Mound in Argyll, may be alle- 
gorically related. There are two Pingalas in Sanskrit literature, 
one an attendant on Surya, the Sun, a Vedic deity; and an- 
other, a sage after whom one of the Upanishads received its 
name. Fingal of Scotland is probably one with the Earls of 
Fingall in County Meath, Ireland, where Tara, one of the 
most distinguished centres of Druidism, still affords impressions 
of its former high estate.**) There is a Finghall parish in the 
North Riding of Yorkshire. 

The Earls of Cavan have a name which may have come 
down from Chavanya, son of Bhrigu and brother of Sree, or 
Lakshmi. The mother of Chavanya is Khyati (Fame). 

The Adit y a Bhaga is Lord of Trees, and the Sanskrit word 
Bhaga stands for an Oak-tree. Many oaks grow on the Hima- 
layan Mountains. It seems rather a curious coincidence that 
at Bagot's Bromley, the ancient domain of the Bagot family, 
there is the Needwood Forest containing some of the finest 
oak-trees in the kingdom and that they are the property of 
this family with a name not unlike Bhaga. There is a chaly- 

*) Astika Parva of the Mahdbhdrata. 
**) See Tara: a Pagan Sanctuary, by Dr. Macalister. 


beate spring in the park. Bagot's Bromley is in the parish of 
Abbot's Bromley. This parish was also called Bromley-Paget's, 
including the name of another old Staffordshire family, that 
of the Pagets. It may be that Bhaga is the foundation for both 
of these. 

The importance of the Oak as a symbol in this neighbour- 
hood is evidenced by the Oak-leaves and Dak-apples to be 
seen in a silver design on the green knee-breeches of the Horn- 

Bagborough, in Somersetshire, seems also to be connected 
with Bhaga, one of the Shining Ones of India. 

It is worth while to notice that a church dedicated to St. 
Nicholas, as at Abbot's Bromley, is found in the place called 
Sevenoaks! Also that the church of St. Nicholas, partly in the 
parish of Guildford, is on a very old site, and that there are 
Oak-leaves surrounding Guildford's coat-of-arms. 

The principle shrine of Brigit in Ireland was in an Oak- 
grove in County Kildare; the name Kildare means a shrine 
connected with some sacred Tree, in this case, of the Oak. The 
word dair is sometimes translated oak, and it is thought 
that the word Druid was derived from it. Possibly, this is the 
derivation of Druid, and at one time it may have had a 
similar meaning to the Sanskrit Deva-Daru, or Timber of the 
gods, applying to more than one kind of Tree. There are five 
special kinds of celestial Trees, in India. The sacred Deodar 
is of the coniferous order, and in the Asiatic Review for 
April, 1937, there is a picture of a Hindu temple in a grove 
of Deodars. Dair, Deodar and Deva-Daru may all be 
philologically connected? 

The Mother Goddess, Bride is a Ddnava, and may have 
presided over Denmark. Her sons are the Tri Dei Dana, or 
trinity of the Ddnavas in Britain. Bridestow, in Devon, where 
there is an ancient church dedicated to this saint, is apparently 
the Stow of Brite. The name is pronounced locally Brit-es-tow. 

In some parts of Scotland, on St. Bride's Eve, Bride used 
to be welcomed from the sea-shore (as coming over the sea) ; 



the people called from their houses: Bride, Bride,*) come 
in, your bed is ready; Preserve the house for the trinity. 
Why the trinity? because it represents the Family. 

The term Arya, or Aryan covered only the three twice- 
born castes of India. The Sudras, or fourth main caste of the 
Hindus were a subject race. They were, however, not debarred 
from the caste system, and were accorded an honourable place, 
though a lowly one. Even a Sudra may become an ascetic of 
the highest spiritual rank, not being exceeded even by the 
Brahmins, in some circumstances. The Sudras, mostly of a 
primitive type in those early days, were given a position be- 
fitting their capabilities; and special laws were applied to them 
for their protection. 

The royal burgh of Inverary suggests the association of the 
Mother Goddess, Arya, or Gauri, with the estuary of the Ary. 
The Aryas, or Aryans received their name from this goddess, 
and, naturally, it would be of importance to the Keltic Aryans. 

*) In the glossary to Macbeth, in the Israel Gollancz edition of Shake- 
speare the word Breed is described as family, or ^parentages, 
and, in Scotland Bride is pronounced breed. 

Chapter 7. 


The Crescent, seen in the coat-of-arms of the university of 
St. Andrew's is not a Christian symbol; it is a symbol of the 
great Aryan Mother, in the first instance, but often appears 
on the Continent in association with the Christian Madonna 
and Child. 

Many coins have been found on Karn Bre, or Cam Brae, 
near Redruth, in Cornwall. The goddess Keridwen is repre- 
sented on these coins. The Ark, or Half-moon was the Basis, 
added to this was, sometimes the head of a bird, probably the 
Hen, the mother of the mystical Egg; at others, the neck and 
head of a Mare, also symbolic of Ked; the legs, when supplied, 
being represented by four tallies, such as were used in the re- 
ligious, judicial, or magical ceremonies of the Druids. At other 
times, the ark, or moon, as the basis, was made to assume the 
appearance of the mystical Sow, the prolific animal. Knots of 
serpents, symbolic of the Druids themselves, are said to be 
found among the sculptured remains of this sept, whose ob- 
ject, it would appear, was to conceal their mysteries under 
hieroglyphic symbols, single or combined.*) The Half-moon 
is the Ark floating on the Cosmic Waters. 

In the remote past colours were of great significance. When 
the Picts tattooed themselves Blue and White with the use of 
woad, there was probably a symbolic meaning attaching to 

*) See The Druids, Note O., by the Rev. John B. Pratt, M. A. (1861). 


these colours of the great Mahamaya in her character of Night. 
The colours of St. Andrew, as Patron Saint of Scotland, are 
Blue and Silver, and it has been explained by the Lyon Clerk 
at the Court of the Lord Lyon in Edinburgh, that the actual 
Scottish flag is Azure, a St. Andrew's Cross Argent, and 
that the Cross is not, as usually represented, on a dark blue 
ground, but on a foundation of Sky-blue. The flag is thus re- 
gistered as a Blue and Silver Badge of the Scottish nation, in 
the Public Register. 

The St. Andrew's Cross of the Basques is Apple-green, and, 
as explained in a letter to the Times (8. 4. 37.), the Green 
and White are the colours of Silurian Wales; (and so of our 
Tudors), the basis is the Cross of Santander, as in the Union 
Jack of Great Britain of 1603 1800; but there is charged 
upon it as in that case, a square cross, not the red cross of St. 
George, but the black cross of St. Devi of South Wales, which 
is incorporated in the arms of the See of St. David. The design 
is British; the colours are Cymric. 

The Black in the arms of the See of St. David's (formerly 
with St. Andrew as the presiding saint) may have some as- 
sociation with the Shield of Sir Gaheris, one of Arthur's 
Knights. This Shield has the Cross of St. Andrew in Blue and 
Silver, with the addition of Black. All these Shields of Arthur's 
Knights are Egg-shaped, coinciding with the Ovoid form of 
the hill-top of Mole Arthur, a former settlement of the Druids, 
and from whence they proceeded round the hills with symbolic 
Eggs suspended from their necks. 

The churchyard of St. Breage, in Cornwall, is round; and 
I am told that Egg-shaped stones are frequently dug up here. 
These are natural stones brought from the sea-beach, and 
chosen on account of their shape. 

Much scientific knowledge known to the Druids must have 
disappeared. Professor Cooksey, when lecturing at Southamp- 
ton in 1904, expressed the opinion that the civilization of the 
Druids was under-estimated, and that the mistake arose from 
the comparison of the Romans with themselves. 

The Briton and Keltic laws are said by Spenser to consti- 


tute a body of regulations, which though unwritten, and de- 
livered only by tradition from one generation to another, were 
intended to enforce the principles of equity. 

The Druids had the direction and education of their chiefs. 
Certain selected individuals were specially trained and instruct- 
ed in worldly knowledge in addition to the tenets of religion. 
The Druids also taught their pupils to respect the value of 
time, and to speak the truth. 

Much Druidical influence may have left its impression on 
this country. One may read in the Times (1. 2. 36.), the 
Prime Minister has said: 'Nowhere was the village community 
so real and so enduring a thing as it was in England for at 
least twelve centuries of its history. In every parish men met 
almost daily in humble, but very real self-government to be 
judged by their fellows, to settle the ploughing times and 
harvest times, the fallowing and grassing rules for the whole 
district.' This selfgoverning principle in small communities 
continues to this day in some places on the West Coast of 

The management of Indian rural communities and villages 
was no less good in India. Sir Frederick Lely writes: The 
ancient village system of a headman, advised by a Panchayat, 
or Council of Five Elders, has preserved the rural population 
throughout India during innumerable centuries, and has con- 
ducted local affairs in each area to the great benefit of the 
inhabitants under Hindu emperors, during the supremacy of 
the Moghuls, and even in British times. 

Under the caste system there were caste elders, and these 
saw to it that caste rules were observed. Are the Elders of the 
Church of Scotland the official descendants the conductors 
of this system? In Aryan Scotland, and probably elsewhere, in 
Keltic regions, the highest class was composed of priests and in- 
tellectuals, speaking generally, the thinkers of the community. 
The second was formed by the nobility, (in India by royalty, 
warriors and scribes) ; next to the nobility came the craftsman 
class. This is precisely the order of the three twice-born castes of 


India; the fourth caste being composed of peasants, or serfs, 
and people engaged in the humbler tasks of life. 

British organization in India was built on the foundation 
of Moghul organization, which itself, was raised upon that of 
the Hindu. 

In pre-Christian days in Britain, and for some centuries 
afterwards, religion lay at the root of everything as it does in 
the East. Before the installation of the new Master of the 
Worshipful Company of Wyre Drawers of the City of London 
in 1936, a service was conducted by the Rector at St. Mi- 
chael's, Royal College Hill, and the address was given by the 
Rector of Beckenham, Mr. Boyd. As reported in the Times 
(7. 1. 36.), he said: The City of London is rightly jealous 
of its ancient traditions and ceremonies, which enshrined ideals 
and conceptions that were of permanent value . . . one of the 
finest traditions of the City was the association between the 
Companies and religion. Every City Livery Company, he be- 
lieved, had its origin in a religious fraternity. 

The ancient settlers in Britain lived in a world which was 
enlivened by song and poetry, and echoed the customs of the 
East, where bards, minstrels and story-tellers wander from 
place to place. All classes are entertained. The poorer classes 
may be seen to this day congregating in the shade of some large 
tree when their work is over to listen to the Kathak, or Bard, 
who dilutes some of the culture of Hindustan for their enter- 
tainment and instruction. 

The British Constitution) a magnificent heritage of the 
past, possesses the quality of flexibility because it is unwritten; 
hence its powers of endurance. The Hindu Religion, for the 
same reason, is built upon a rock. It is elastic, and unwritten, 
free from the bonds of dogma, which inculcates Tolerance. 
Never within memory has it been the direct cause of war, and, 
with the caste system and all its drawbacks, is the oldest system 
in the world! It bends, without breaking, like the British Con- 

The Druids were adepts in arts of which we know very 
little, such as colour-blending, also the power of making them- 


selves invisible. Probably only a few of the Druids acquired 
this faculty, and those who specially trained themselves, under- 
going the necessary self-discipline. In full, this was a very 
severe and lengthy training, but may have been of much lesser 
extent for the development of some of these powers. 

The mystic Land of Sidh was a great mental training- 
ground in India. The power of assuming an ihiperceptible form 
at will, or of becoming invisible, is the first of the eight classes 
of Sidh training, and is called Anima. The poet Shelley is 
thought to have known how to achieve invisibility. Peredur 
was given a precious stone which made him invisible at will; 
and King Arthur possessed a tartan which gave him the same 
advantage. This mantle belonging to Arthur was made of 
diapered satin with an apple of ruddy gold at each corner 
thereof . It may have come allegorically from the Land of 
Sidh with which Arthur was associated. When Uthr Pendragon 
wished to carry away Igerna, or Igraine, wife of Gourlois, King 
of Cornwall, the wizard, Merlin, obligingly changed his ap- 
pearance so that he resembled her husband; and thus, through 
the result of this incident, Arthur came into the world, accord- 
ing to this account. The change of appearance may have 
been an actual happening in real life, the so-called magician 
using Yoga power, or some peculiar science not known to 
everyone, and which would accomplish this effect. 

After the introduction of Christianity, apparently powers 
of all kinds which were not understood were put down to 
witchcraft and sorcery, in civic quarters. The Church seems 
always to have recognized two kinds of powers, only one of 
which was evil this until the Reformation. 

The first Lord Lytton, who understood the East, explains, 
through one of his characters, Sir Philip Derval, in his book 
A Strange Story, how that all which is mysterious is not 
necessarily Black Magic, although the latter exists. Certain 
laws, unknown to the generality of mankind, can be used and 
have often been applied for good purposes. 

It may be that the City of London submerged itself under 
a wave of Black Magic when the Saxons arrived there, be- 


cause, according to accounts of those times, they were so fear- 
ful of the strange effects which manifested themselves, that 
London was actually abandoned by them for a time. 

The Druids employed methods, probably of a scientific 
nature, to repel their foes from off the coast of Ireland. They 
produced a mist which may have been composed of gaseous 
matter of some description. 

Oscar, or Oscara is the son of Ossian, and his name is 
associated in some way with the Human Voice. Alamvusha, 
son of Rishyasringa and of whom Oscar is possibly the counter- 
part, is a Rakshasa,*) and is possessed of illusory powers.**) 
These faculties may have been ventriloquistic because Rishyas- 
ringa and Alamvusha are descendants of Marichi. According 
to the Ramayana, Marich, also a Rakshasa, uses ventriloquism 
while carrying out the plan for securing Sita.***) 

Oscar is descended in a direct line from Mark, King of 
Cornwall (Marichi) ; Nudd (Nugent, who appears to be iden- 
tical with Kasyapa, son of Marichi) ; Finn (Vibhandaka), and 
Ossian (Rosgrana, who, apparently, is identical with Ris- 

King Mark of Cornwall is the uncle of Trystram (Drustan), 
who, in the form of St. Dunstan, was the Abbot of Deer! 

So recently as about fifty years ago there seems to have 
been a case of employing the art of invisibility as a protection 
in a dangerous situation in Edinburgh. It purports to have 
happened to a doctor of that city whose housekeeper was a 
Keltic woman from the Highlands. This old woman had been 
with him for many years and was much attached to him. One 
day the doctor received a call from someone unknown to him 
in a low quarter of the town. He was preparing to set off to 
visit the patient when his old housekeeper came and implored 
him not to go, as she knew through the second sight, she told 
him, that he would be in great danger, if he attempted to go 

*) See the Drona Parva of the Mahabhdrata. 
**) See the Bhishma Parva of the Mahdbhdrata. 
***) See pp. 53, 54. 


to see these people. But the doctor replied that he must respond 
to the call. Before he left his housekeeper gave him a parting 
injunction: Remember, she said, that you will see without 
being seen, and that you will hear without being heard. 

The doctor found the house in a very poor neighbourhood, 
and knocked on the dilapidated door, which was opened to 
him by a frowsy woman. Although he was standing in front 
of her she did not appear to see him, and bawled out: Who's 
there?. This she did a second time, and then she perceived 
the doctor, and took him inside. His experience soon told him 
that he must be very wary. He was conducted to a room where 
a group of people were gathered round the bedside of an old 
man. It struck him that he would be expected to hasten the 
end of the patient, after which it might be deemed expedient 
to silence him also by closing his career. 

It occurred to the doctor that he was becoming invisible 
and visible by turns, as referred to by his housekeeper. Be- 
coming more familiar with the idea he found that he was able 
to put this power into force, and also to control audibility. He 
availed himself of these strange faculties thus bestowed upon 
him, and which could have been brought into play only 
with considerable mental effort on the part of his faithful 
attendant. Finally, he was able to extricate himself from one 
of the most perilous situations in which he had ever found 
himself; and returned home pondering over the valuable gifts 
received from his Keltic housekeeper. In this case, as also with 
Fire-walking, it seems that the power can sometimes be trans- 

I believe it is in the English annals of the Indian Mutiny 
how the notorious Nana Sahib, when taken prisoner by the 
British, succeeded in duping his captors, although the incident 
is not recorded precisely in these words! This curious art of 
invisibility seems to have been used to effect the escape of Nana 
Sahib. He was escorted through the streets by British soldiery, 
in full view of hundreds of people; and, seemingly, without 
the slightest chance of regaining his liberty. But, much to the 


amazement of his guards, he vanished, and another man was 
seen in his place. 

I do not think it could have been realized by the British 
that Nana Sahib was there all the time! This may have been 
an instance of assuming another form at will, so frequently 
referred to in the Sanskrit epics. Possibly it was due to the 
application of Yoga science, either by Nana Sahib himself, or 
by others, to whom the art was known. Nana Sahib was never 
permanently secured. 

It looks to me as if the churches at Tintagel, and of St. 
Kerid at Truro, have at the Lych Gate an arrangement for 
Fire-walking. The bars of stone on the ground over a small 
pit are said to be for the purpose of keeping out animals, but 
animals might break their legs in this way. It seems much 
more likely that Fire was placed under these stone planks 
at the entrance to the church at certain seasons, for Fire cere- 

As in later times, the early peoples dispelled the mono- 
tony of life with their festivals, some of which were Solar, 
and others, Lunar. In ancient days the Keltic Calendar was 
lunar, as was also that of the Hindus. The Calendar is of great 
importance to the Hindus, as it has always been, and probably 
was among the American Indians, the British and the Bretons, 
of which traces still remain. The Indians of San Juan Ca- 
pistrano, California, had a seasonal Calendar of this descrip- 

In Keltic spheres when the Tuatha were conquered, alle- 
gorically, or otherwise, the Land of Sidh became the abode 
of Elves and Fairies, and it is probable that Elves are related 
to Elphin, and Elphinstone. The Tuatha, who were the people 
in Britain who possessed powers which appeared to be magical, 
retained their power of disappearing and re-appearing at will. 
The Sidh power, however, at this stage, must soon have been 
on the wane, until it completely faded away, crushed by people 
who did not understand it. Some traces of it, apparently, were 
left behind, but not as an organized power, with centres for 


The Dark Tower of the King of Elfland in Childe Row- 
land has been compared to the Maes Howe of Orkney.* X 
Elfland was ruled by the King of Phairie, who, with his 
Fairy consort, rode at the latter end of harvest, at All Hallow 
E 5 en. This is the time when the last produce is brought in 
from the fields; and when the spiritual Harvest is remembered 
at the time of All Souls. The Harvest festival was a very 
important one, and there was much ceremony attached to it. 
According to an account from Elgin, published in British 
Calendar Customs,**) those who took the last load of grain 
from the stack-yard had their faces blackened; this must have 
been a tribute to the goddess Kali, whose festival is observed 
at Michaelmas, and whose colours, Blue and Silver, were 
borne by the Fairy cavalcade. White shields they carry in 
their hands, with emblems of pale silver; with glittering blue 

Pratt, in his History of Buchan (1858) says much the 
same of the Fairies, namely that their special time was Hallow- 
mas Eve. Although this is not Michaelmas, the Feast of Kali, 
it is connected with the Manes, and Mahakala. Pratt relates 
how the Fairies rode forth in courtly procession with their 
Queen. The trampling of the tiny hoofs of their horses, and 
the music of their bridle bells, might be heard in the passing 

Meave, or Mab, closely related to Ethne (Sarasvati), and 
possibly the daughter of Etain and Eochu, has the character- 
istics of the children of Kartikeya and Shashthi, who resemble 
their parents. She is associated with Babies, who she sometimes 
steals from their parents. Mab became, Queen of the Fairies, 
and possibly, at a later stage, St. Mabe of Cornwall, Patron 
Saint of the village called Mabe. There is a St. Mab's Cross 
on the outskirts of Wigan. 

Highland fairies come always from the West; and travel 
through the air on Whirlwinds. 

*) See Childe Rowland*, p. 193, Folk-Lore (1891). 
**) (Vol. I., Scotland) by Mrs. Macleod Banks, President of the Folk- 
Lore Association. 


When in Wiesbaden in 1936, I noticed St. Nicholas, a pos- 
sible successor to Eochu and Kartikeya, going in human form 
on his time honoured round to visit the Boys and Girls of the 
neigbourhood. Perhaps he is a mythic descendant of the Snakes, 
or Serpents of Schlangenbad.*) At the same season of the year, 
the beginning of December, about the time that Kartikeya is 
being worshipped in India, the Boy Bishop was remembered 
once more at the old Cinque Port of Romney, in Kent. This 
medieval ceremony was connected with St. Nicholas, Patron 
Saint of the Young, and took place on his Feast-day, the sixth 
of December. That St. Nicholas evolved from Eochu is by no 
means put forward as a certainty, but he distinctly bears the 
character of Kartikeya in respect to Children. 

At West Tanfield, in Yorkshire a beautiful church is dedi- 
cated to this saint (St. Nicholas). The name of the place, which 
is also found in the Lothians of Scotland, indicates Fire in a 
symbolic sense. In one of the windows of this church at West 
Tanfield St. Nicholas is seen with his Three Bags of Gold, with 
which he rescued some girls from being sold into slavery on 
account of the poverty of their father, according to legend. He 
is also thus represented in the church of St. Nicholas at New- 
bury, Berkshire. The name Thanington, formerly Taning- 
tune, includes the word Tan, and there is a church of St. 
Nicholas at a place of this name in Kent. Thanet obviously 
derived from the same source as Thanington is the name 
of that which may have been a sacred island containing the 
Shell Grotto with Aryan emblems on the walls. The old church 
of St. Nicholas-at-M^aJ^ near Reculver on the Kentish coast, 
may be compared to the church of St. Nicholas, in Somerset, 
at a place called Combe St. Nicholas, and near the village of 
Wadeford, not far from the Northay Barrow. 

The Combe is a little way above the church. It is an artifi- 
cial mound, and was excavated in 1935. Evidences of cremation 
were discovered and a fragment of a Bronze Age cinerary urn 
which is now on view in the church. 

*) See p. 35. 


A list of Bishops of the Sumerseate is also to be found in 
the church. Is Sumerseate the seat of the Sumerians, or 
Aryans who received the tenets of their faith from Mt. Meru 
in the Sumerian range, now known as the Altai Mountains? 
Somerset has many traces of the Aryans, and it may be that 
they gave to it the name of Sumerseate. 

One of the peaks of the sacred Mt, Meru is known as Ka, 
and this may be compared to St. Ca's Well in Aberdeenshire.*) 

Mt. Meru stands kissing the heavens by its height. It is 
graced with streams and trees, and resounds with the charming 
melody of winged choirs. 

) See p. 10. 

Chapter 8. 


The Fairy Cross in Somerset, and Sidbury, Sidmouth and 
the river Sid in Devon, remind us of fairy habitations in ad- 
dition to the numerous Fairy Knowes in Scotland and Ireland, 
and many reminders of the Fairies in other parts of the British 
Isles, and Brittany. 

In Huon of Bordeaux Arthur takes the form of a fairy 
monarch, and is heir to the kingdom of Oberon, his brother. 
It is recounted of Arthur, in his mythic character, that he slew 
the Demon Cat of Losanne; but, according to Andre de 
Coutance, Arthur was really vanquished and carried off by 
the Cat; but Andre remarks that: One durst not tell that tale 
before Britons! 

Not long ago some antique pottery was discovered in the 
Bean Valley in Kent. The name Bean suggests Bean-Sidhe 
(Banshee), the Woman of the Hill, or the Woman of the Fairy 
Mansions. A Hill in this sense is a knoll, or Fairy Knowe, and 
Bean-Sidhe may have been sacred in the days which preceded 
the Tuatha fairies. Bansha, in Tipperary, also suggests as- 
sociation with the fairies. Beanbridge in Devon is not far from 
Kentisbeare, which possesses a name suggesting the pura, or 
Borough of Kunti, the Earth Mother. 

Aed, Keltic god of Fire, and possibly, in Edinburgh, the 
same character as Arthur, is the son of Ronan, in Scotland, and 
of Ainmire, King of Tara, in Ireland. The name Ainmire 
may possibly have left traces in the surname Anmer for 
which, I understand, no origin has been given. 


Aed is closely connected with the Sidh, and is described as 
a man between two worlds. 

The Siddhas are those who have attained Siddhi. These are 
attainments of super, or extra human powers, reached, in 
varying degree through Yoga practice. Anima, or Animan, the 
first, is the power of reducing oneself to very small dimensions, 
practically a state of invisibility, and which would seem to 
apply to the fairies in a mythological sense. The Siddhas dwell 
betwixt earth and heaven, and thus the description of Aed tal- 
lies with this one, and makes it not unreasonable to assume that 
the Keltic Land of Sidh corresponds to the Land of Sidh in 

In the old Irish MS. The Destruction of Da Derga's Hostel, 
there are allusion to Fire ceremonies such as take place at 
Cooch Behar, and other places in India at the present time. 
The festival at Cooch Behar is in honour of the goddess Durga. 

In this old epic there is mention of Peacocks within the 
precincts of Tara. These Birds, and others with Tufts, or 
Crests including Pheasants, symbolize Fire. The Mandan In- 
dians, who live on the banks of the Yellowstone River in North 
America, call themselves the People of the Pheasant although 
it is a bird which they have never seen. In Breton folk-lore 
a Golden-crested Wren is called the thief of Fire; and, in 
India, the Sanskrit word Sikha which is used to denote the 
Crest of a Bird, literally means Flame. According to Hindu 
mythology Sikhin is one of the synonyms of Fire, and Sikhins 
are Fire-birds or the Crested ones. The Sparks which rise from 
the Fire are mythologically the attendants of Siva. 

Agni, of Siva's family, the Spirit of Fire, is the sacred Tree, 
or Pillar of Flame; and Svaha, the consort of Agni, is the 
mantra, (invocation) for the libation which feeds the flames, 
all of which is highly symbolic. The Vedas, the oldest classical 
writings of the Aryan Hindus, teach that Fire is the originator 
of all life on this planet, but that Fire (the Sun) is powerless 
to produce Life excepted when united with Water (the Moon), 
consequently the Sun and Moon (Fire and Moisture) are held, 

Dorothea Chaplin 


allegorically, to be the Parents of Creation. These two elements 
unite and produce the Seed, or Son. 

It is explained in the Vishnu Purana how Fire never actual- 
ly dies out, otherwise it could not be re-kindled. Agni, the Fire- 
god, has been the inspiration for some of the most majestic 
hymns in the whole realm of literature, and his image is one 
of the most beautiful. When represented by Indian artists the 
form of Agni is brilliant, like the Rising Sun. He is adorned 
with a flowing beard, and his body with a sacred Thread. Agni 
holds a kamandalu, or Water-pot, of the kind used by ascetics, 
in his left hand, and in his right, he holds a chaplet, or Rosary. 
The whole figure appears in a halo of Shining Flames, and is 
sitting on a seat shaped like a Half-Moon. 

Agni sometimes appears in a Kunda (sacrificial vessel) with 
Seven Rays, or Flames issuing from his head. 

According to legendary tradition, the Battle of Agned was 
fought in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh; and one of the 
old names for Edinburgh Castle was Castel Myned Agnedh; 
do we see traces here of Agni? The Sanskrit word Agni-idh is 
the Inflamer of Fire. And there is a Half-Moon Battery on the 
Castle rock! The ancient chapel is dedicated to St. Margaret 
whose symbol is a Dragon. Arthur, also connected with Edin- 
burgh, wore the Dragon symbol. Aed is the Fiery Torch of 
the Kelts, Kentigern is a Pillar of Flame, and so is the Indian 
Agni! The emblem of Kentigern is a Stag, and a Doe ap- 
pears in the Edinburgh coat-of-arms. 

The term Durgapuja, meaning the festival of Durga, is an 
alternative to Devipuja for the Fire ceremonies at Cooch Behar, 
and suggests that the Irish hostel at Tara was that of Devi 
Durga, hence the reason for the Fire ritual taking place at the 
same time as in India at the Vernal and Autumnal Equinoxes. 

In some of her aspects Durga is terrible like the tremendous 
and fearful powers of Nature, but in others, she is beautiful, 
like Nature in her lovely expressions. 

Brigit, or Brite (Britannia?) with her Trident, and Rule of 
the Sea, is Gauri, or Durga, in the form of Bharati, who is 
mentioned in the Vedas. 


Durga has Ten Arms, or Hands, representing the ten points 
of the compass. All the gods gave their best weapons to her 
for the struggle with the Demon, in which she is engaged. This 
represents the contest between the higher forces against the 
lower, with the resultant subjugation of the latter. Durga is 
the impersonation of an impregnable Fort .against the forces 
of Darkness. She is Vijaya, the goddess of Victory, and the 
supreme Protectress of all distressed and destitute people. It is 
possible that the Keltic fort of Dundarg was dedicated to her. 

The following extracts are taken from a hymn addressed 
to the goddess Durga (Bhishma Parva, vi., 23). 

I bow down to you, O goddess Arya, the successful com- 
mandant of armies You are bedecked with various orna- 
ments and you bear a flag-staff with the tail-feathers of Pea- 
cocks. O goddess, you wield the weapon known as the Trident, 

you bear a Sword and a Shield. I bow down to you Oh 

Wolf -headed goddess You are Fire himself. You ever abide 

in great trees in the houses of your devotees and always 

in Patala You give splendour to the Moon and to the 


The English words Muniments and Munitions carry 
the same meaning, the first indicating a protection against the 
forces of Ignorance, and the second, against physical forces of 
Darkness. These probably had their origin in the personality of 
Muni, or from the word Muni (Sage), Muni allegorically 
holding the same position as Durga. 

Brihaspati, Preceptor to the Aryan gods, is a form of Agni. 
He is the planet Jupiter, and, as a mythological figure, the 
husband of Tara, and an ancestor of Drona. 

Judging by their place-names, the Kelts revered a personage 
of the name of Drona, or Dron. The surname Dronsfield and 
Dronsfield, in Derbyshire, as also Dronley, in Angus, suggest the 
Field of Drona; Angus may have been the mythological 
successor in Keltic lands of Angiras, a spiritual son of Brahma, 
the Creator, father of Brihaspati, and from whom the Indian 
Drona is descended. There was a tribe, or mythological 
company of Angirases in India. 


Brihaspati, son of Angiras, is the father of Bharadwaj, an 
ancestor of Drona; and Breas, son of Angus, may be the father 
of Budwas, an ancestor of the Keltic Drona. 

Dron is the name of a hill in Perthshire described as a 
grassy summit of the Ochils. Within a dell on its southern 
slope are the remains of a twelfth century chapek, where, in 
yet more ancient times, there may have been a shrine. 

The precincts of a Pictavian palace at Forteviot, in Perth- 
shire, are marked by several crosses, or pillars, and are asso- 
ciated with the name Dronochy, a name which may be 
compared to the Sanskrit Dronacharya. 

In Peebleshire the ancient hill-fort of Cardrona rises from 
the valley of the Tweed between Peebles and Innerleithen; and 
the presiding deity, or hero of this British encampment may 
have coincided with the mythic figure of the same name who 
took a prominent part in the Mahdbharata War, and who has 
been already mentioned in his character of Preceptor to the 
sons of Mother Earth.*) 

The history of Cardrona, if there is any, is hidden in a veil 
covering the past; it is not improbable that there is tradition 
lying under the surface of this old hill-camp. 

The Sanskrit word Drona means a Pitcher, or hollow vessel, 
made of wicker, a kind of Basket. This is a simile brought down 
from allegorical heights into a mythological sphere. The Pitcher 
is the Container of the symbolic Seed, and appears to connect 
Drona with the Fertility Cult, all in accordance with his descent 
from Brihaspati. The Drona, or wicker vessel was of a kind 
for measuring Corn, and is the representation in simple guise 
of the Great Mother, Earth. The account of the birth of the 
Keltic Conaire evidently puzzled the translator of the Destruc- 
tion of Da Derga's Hostel because there is a question-mark after 
the description of the wicker fence in which his mother was 
enclosed before he was born. The Indian allegorical setting 
seems to disclose the mystic meaning of this passage in the 
ancient Gaelic MS. 

* See pp. 70, 71. 


During the Mahabharata War Drona attained to the rank 
of atiratha, and became leader of the army of the Kurus, or 
Kauravas. When he made his entry on to the field of battle 
a Pitcher and a sacrificial Altar were depicted on his standard 
showing that the Corn Measure was a sacred emblem; Drona 
was a Brahmin, and also a Warrior, and in an allegorical sense, 
the Pitcher was his mother. 

King Jayadratha, also on the side of the Kurus, drove on 
to the field with a magnificent standard affixed to his chariot; 
and on this royal flag was emblazoned the device of a Silver 
Boar: Like the goddess of Corn incarnate, endued with all 
beauty and producing every seed.*) 

Cardrona in the Lowlands of Scotland, Caer Droia in 
Wales, the City of London, towns of the name of Drayton, and 
the Trojan fort in Asia Minor seem all to be linked in one 
long chain to the allegorical general Drona of Mahabharata 

Caer Droia, like Troy of classic times, is of a circular 
character, and is a symbolic Maze. Professor J. E. Lloyd states 
that in old Welsh literature the city of Troy is sometimes 
styled Caer Droia, and not only is there this remarkable tie 
between Troy and Caer Droia, but London, or Caer Lud, 
(the Fort of Lugh), is described as the Pattern of the Great 
Troy.**) The Fort of Troy, with its Wooden Horse asso- 
ciations, possibly connects it with the Wooden Horse customs 
of the British Isles, called Marie Lwd in Wales. 

It is worth noticing in connection with Troy that, on 
modern maps, the site is in Bigha, and recalling that the Keltic 
word Bega is the name of a saint, and also means Life ; this 
in comparison with Bighapur (the Town, or City State of 
Bigha) in India and which has a name identical with the 
region in which Troy was situated. Some association must surely 
exist between the Keltic deity Begha, who became St. Bee, 
the place-name Bigbury, in Devon, Bigha in Asia Minor and 

*) Santi Parva of the Mahdbh&rata, 105. 
**) See Gumaean Gates*, p. 112, by W. F. J. Knight. 


Bighapur, in the valley of the sacred river Ganges, in what are 
now the United Provinces. 

At the entrance to the Dardanelles, and not far from the site 
of Troy, is Kumkale, which may bear some relationship to 
Kali, such as a Cathaktimba, or combe in her honour. 

Canak, also in this neighbourhood, is a reminder of the 
Hindu poet, Canakya, or Chanakya, whose famous couplets 
have entertained Hindu India through countless centuries. 

We find the site of Troy thus described by Gibbon : Ancient 
Troy, seated on an eminence at the foot of Mount Ida, over- 
looked the Hellespont ; and we may recollect that Ida, or Ila 
is a form of the Aryan Mother of the universe; also that Ila 
is the wife of Budh (Mercury), whose British counterpart may 
be Lugh (Mercury), whose Fort of London is the Pattern of 
the Great Troy. 

During Herr Dorpf eld's excavations in 1894 it was as- 
certained that the first foundation of Troy belongs to the 
earliest Bronze Age.*) 

The geometric Circle, Wheel or Chakra seems to be re- 
presented in Britain as the Wheel of St. Catherine. 

Taking into account the fact that Trystram has emerged 
from Drostan, and Tintagel from Dundagel it might 
be that the root of Troy is not tro, but dro. Drayton, 
thought to be associated with these, has kept the initial D, 
like Drona in Cardrona, and like Droia. Another ex- 
ample of this philological transformation may be noticed in the 
name of the river Tauber flowing through territory in Bavaria 
formerly occupied by Kelts, the original name being Dubra. 
In English usage the American Indian word Dodems becomes 
totems. Thus it may be seen that in the course of centuries, 
this change has occurred in several instances. The root, of the 
entire word for a mystic Circle seems to be Dro. 

It is possible that there is a bond between the Trojan Hector 

*) See article in the Times (22. 5. 36.), The Real Troy, by E. J. 
Forsdyke, Keeper of the Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British 


and the British mythic figure, Syr Ector, father of Sir Kay, and 
brother of Launcelot.*) 

The Indian Drona is a Teacher, and military Tactician in 
an allegorical atmosphere. He teaches how to construct Circular 
ramparts, as emphasized by the following. Like the early 
Hindus, the early British arranged their military forces in con- 
centric Circles; and, in Sanskrit, this arrangement is called 
Chakra Vyuha (Chakra- Wheel; F^wAa-arrangement of forces 
in battle array. In The Civilization of Ancient India, Mr 
Dutt says that the Sanskrit epics faithfully describe the manners 
and customs of the ancient Hindus, and this although the ac- 
counts of battles may be entirely mythical and symbolic. 

In the Drona Parva of the Mahabharata a description is 
given of the Chakra Vyuha arranged by Drona, which over- 
came the heroic son of Arjuna, and caused his death. In 
the rear of the first array Drona arranged a second, in the 
form of a Lotus, and within the Lotus was another dense 
array called the Needle, which was impenetrable. The array 
consisted of two parts, one of which was the Lotus enclosing 
the Needle, and the other, in the shape of a Wain (Sakata**) ) 
was apparently an oblong.***) 

The Lotus, in this case, would appear to be the emblem 
of Brahma, the Creator, although it is also an emblem of 
Lakshmi and of Narayana. Here it is formed by Drona, a 
descendant of Brahma. 

To the initiated, so I am told, the Lotus reveals everything 
relating to the innermost, occult significance attaching to 
Mahamaya, or Mahalakshmi. It is actually one symbol, al- 
though connected with more than one mythological figure. 

The array staged by Drona was full 48 miles in lengths, 
and its back portion full 20 miles in width. The array 
figured partly a Circle, and partly a Sakata****) 

Drona is described as being cased in a white coat of mail, 

*) Sec Sommer's Notes on Malory's King Arthur. 

**) See p. 74. 

***) See map of the Cardrona estate. 

****) See Drona Parva of the Mahabharata. 


with a beautiful turban. He stood in the mouth of the array 
at the entrance to the Sakata. 

In another part of the Drona Parva we read: Like a 
circle of fire-brands the mighty Drona careered through the 
army of the Pandavas; an apt description for a descendant 
of Jupiter! 

There can be no doubt but that some of the Scottish and 
Irish rivers are regarded as personalities; the Tweed, for 
instance, flowing past Cardrona, is always spoken of as Tweed, 
and the source is Tweed's Well, the property of Tweed! This 
personage sometimes holds converse with a neighbouring river ! 
Dee, in Aberdeenshire, also shows signs of animation, and small 
wonder if she is Devi, a goddess. 

Aberdeen lies between the estuaries of Don and Dee. The 
Don, like the river Danube, or Donau on the Continent, seems 
to have received its name from Brigit or Danu. As the Danube 
pursues its course to the sea it glides past the Deva Hills, near 

Many weems, or subterranean Earth-houses, often called 
Eirde houses, are found in Aberdeenshire, and also in the He- 
brides. The word weems is derived from the Gaelic Uamha 
(with the M silent), and it means Cave. One sometimes 
finds gif for if in old Scottish writings, showing that 
occasionally the initial G is dropped before a vowel; and 
thus the Gaelic Uamha may once have been Guha, the 
Sanskrit word for Cave. 

Some of the clans show signs of a deifical derivation such 
as the Clan Campbell, from Kamala; the Clan Morgan 
(Mackay) from Morrigu, the Clan Macneil, from Nila Sa- 
rasvati, and the Clan Maclean from Eoghan, or Eochu, ac- 
cording to its Gaelic name. 

In Galloway, Terregan (Tir Eoghain, or Eogan's Land) 
is the Land of Eochu; and, on the same lines, Tarland, in 
Aberdeenshire, might be the Land of Tara, and this although 
the name varies considerably in early records. Etain seems to 
be a form of Tara, and she is the wife of Eochu, King of Tara, 


in Ireland. The surname Tarr might originate from this 
source, also. 

A cinerary urn was found in this district, bearing witness 
to Aryan tenets; both Tarland and Migvie, adjoining it, show 
signs of sanctity, and of Aryan conceptions, and Migvie has a 
Druidic Circle. There are several Blue Cairns in Scotland, one 
of which is the Blue Cairn of Ladieswell in the Tarland neigh- 
bourhood, and this may indicate association with Tara, or the 
Blue Sarasvati. 

The hillside of Aikey Brae in Buchan, near the Abbey of 
Deer, slopes down to the river Ugie. There is a stone circle 
at Aikey Brae, well-known to archeologists and antiquarians. 
In Scotland these Circles were sometimes called The Auld 
Kirk, or the Church of Annoid, although no church has ever 
been there. Annoid is probably the Mother Goddess, Annet, or 
Anait, otherwise Grainne, connected with Stonehenge. A 
famous Fair used to be held on Aikey Brae, and was called 
Aikey's Fair. 

The Pictish name of Ugie has no origin assigned to it. 
The Abbey of Deer stood at the head of this stream. The root 
Ug is Sanskrit, and there are several mythic figures whose 
names are founded on it. Ugrasena,* ) a king mentioned in the 
Bhagavata, and other Puranas, Ugraretas, a form of Rudra, 
Ugraka, mentioned in a list of Serpents, and Ugradanstra, the 
daughter of Meru. That Ugie is connected with the Serpents 
is highly probable, being situated in the region of the Taxilii 
tribe. Ugra is a name for Siva, in the form of Vayu. The 
tribe Icenii in East Anglia, with Boadicea, or Boudicca as 
their priestly Warrior Queen, were originally called Ugainiau, 
suggesting a philological association with Ugie in Scotland, 
Ugborough in Devon, Ugworthy in Somerset and Uggeshall, 
in Suffolk. Ugworthy is also a surname. 

There is also the river Ugley in Essex. It is said by Indians 
that the Hooghley, on which Calcutta is situated, was named 

*) Ugrasena, Makal and Nirada are three of the sixteen Deva-Gand- 


by the English. If this be the case it would be rather curious if 
a Sanskrit name had found its way to England, and had 
returned to Calcutta! 

It would seem that certain mythic characters were borne 
across the ocean to Britain from America by the Serpent tribes, 
also bringing with them an early representation of the Holy 
Grail in symbolic form. 

The well-known antiquarian and historian, Sir William 
Skene, writes in Celtic Scotland: Reaching to the mountain 
chain of the Mounth to the Moray Firth were the 'Taexili'*) 
who gave their name to the headland now known as Kinnaird's 
Head. Their town Devana is placed by Ptolemy in the Strath 
of Dee, near the Pass of Ballater, and close to Loch Daven 
where the remains of a native town are still to be seen, and in 
which the name of Devana seems yet to be preserved. In a 
footnote on the same page he adds: A11 editions (i. e., of 
Ptolemy) agree in placing Devana in the interior of the country 
at a distance of at least thirty miles from the coast. Its identity 
with the sea-port of Aberdeen rests upon the authority of Ri- 
chard of Cirencester alone.**) 

It is true that the Romans were in this neighbourhood, and 
that they had a predeliction for Romanizing personal and place- 
names, but I venture to think that this name is not Latinized. 

Aberdeen may have been called Devanha; this name may 
still be noticed in the town. The word Deva has many adapta- 
tions as a compound substantive, and Ha frequently makes a 
termination to a Sanskrit word. The H is clearly pronounced, 
and is therefore not very likely to have been dropped. Taking 
everything into account it looks as if Devanha is more likely 
to have been the name of Aberdeen, than Devana. That both 
Devanha and Devana are connected with the Aryan Serpents 
seems highly probable. 

Though the word is in English the idea of the Lotus as a 
name for the Lotus Loch, in Galloway may have come down 

*) See pp. 36, 37. 
**) See Loch Kinnord: its History and Antiquities*, by J. G. Michie. 


from remote antiquity; a so-called Lotus-leaf design is one of 
the patterns of Keltic craftsmanship. In the case of Loch Daven, 
or Devana in the Strath of Dee, the Sanskrit name may have 
been retained because Devana is a Sanskrit word meaning 
Lotus!*) It was also a name in Leicestershire, where there 
was a roadway thought to have been constructed by the 
Romans, and called Via Devana, but the Sanskrit word was in 
existence long before the Romans could have named the loch 
in Aberdeenshire, and the roadway in Leicestershire. 

The town near Loch Daven may have been Devana. 

In the neighbourhood of Loch Daven and Loch Kinnord 
are the Fairy Faulds where Dr Joseph Robertson, an eminent 
antiquarian, discovered several circular foundations. The Kin- 
nord Loch was formerly known as Loch Kander; the Lotus 
is the Sun, and Kander may have been Candra, the Moon- 
god. Aberdeen composed of two parts in early times, was pre- 
sided over by St. Nicholas and St. Machar. It may be that St. 
Nicholas is Eochu of Tara who married Etain (Tara), god- 
dess of Learning and of War, and that St. Machar is Macha, 
Keltic goddess of War, mother of Aed, and possibly, a form 
of Etain (Tara). 

Vessels of various sizes were found in the very extensive 
Pictish lake-dwellers settlement of Loch Kinnord and Loch 
Daven; and one of them was a canoe, thirty feet in length, 
hollowed out of a single piece of oak. 

Some years ago a boating-party, including Mr Michie, was 
on Loch Kinnord when one of the party, Mr Charles Brown 
now of Aberdeen, saw a canoe lying at the bottom of the lake. 
The others came cautiously, one by one, to avoid upsetting the 
boat, and looked at the prehistoric canoe which is still in the 
same position. The land around is full of relics of all kinds to 
this day. 

The Romans were astonished at the aquatic achievements 
of these natives. Loch Kinnord and Loch Daven both have 
artificial islands which are described as a marvel of ingenuity*. 

*) See Sir Monier Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 


In Kashmir, or Cashmere, which was inhabited by Nagas, 
there are artificial, floating islands on which the natives grow 
cucumbers, melons, etc: The dominant race in Kashmir are the 
Dogras, and the Maharaja, himself, is a Dogra. There was, at 
least, one Pictish chief called Doghra, and this may have been 
the name of a tribe, or clan in Scotland at one time. So many 
ancient Scottish records have been destroyed that very little is 
known about Doghra, or about the Picts in general. 

The name Ruthrieston, or Rudrieston, near Aberdeen, 
points to a connection with the deity, Rudra, of the Aryans, 
who may have inhabited a monolith of this name. In old 
records it is sometimes called Rudriestoune. Rudby is probably 
the Borough of Rudra, and there are many other names sug- 
gesting a connection with this allegorical figure. Ruthrie, in 
Scotland, is Roderick and with this ancestry it is not surprising 
that there should have been a famous Roderick Dhu (Black 
Roderick). In England the name takes the form of Robert. 
Ruthrie may have given the name Rufford to Rufford 

It is very strange to see the old well in Duthie Park, Aber- 
deen, with pillar-heads on each side of the well-house on which 
are either Serpents, or Feathers leaning forward, this in a region 
occupied by the Taxilii; and it struck me as still more curious 
that flower-beds, edged with box, executed at the present time, 
are in the form of Serpents with the Egg between them. This 
on the banks of the sacred river Dee! 

On the fifteenth century pulpit in King's College may be 
seen designs of Serpent-Dragons. The pulpit was originally in 
St. Machar's Cathedral, near the river Don. 

It is recorded of King Arthur that the similitude of two 
serpents was upon the sword in gold, Arthur's Cove is in 
Aberdeenshire, and the Serpent hero, King Arthur, gives per- 
sonal form to the legendary atmosphere of the Taxilii region; 
as also Brigit. 

The City States of Takshasila (Taxila) of Northern India, 
and inhabited by part of the Serpent race, was founded by 


Bharata, an allegorical relative of Brigit (Bharati), or Danu 

The State of Texas, which formerly belonged to Mexico, 
may have been Taksha at one time. 

Other Vedic and Serpent deities are Laghu and Tara. 
Laghu, according to Sir Monier Williams', has Lugh as an 
alternative. Tara is associated with places in the British Isles, 
but only in name; as a mythic personality she seems to have 
faded away completely, except, possibly, under other names. 

A tablet has been found in Colchester on which it is stated 
that it was put up by one Lossio Veda, describing himself as 
Caledo, a Caledonian Pict. Lossio may be connected with the 
river Lossie flowing through Elgin, near the Priory, and with 
Lossiemouth not far distant. Lossio may be a reflection of 
Veda, a character in the Mahabharata. The Indian Veda 
seems to personify the Vedas, like Sarasvati (the Word). 

These sacred books are for the guidance of the mind, be 
cause it is considered essential that the mind should be under 
proper control in order to prevent Speech from becoming mere 

Loch Nell, or Loch-a-Neala, at the foot of the Serpent 
Mound in Argyll is the Lake of Swans, and might be con- 
nected with Serpents also. The chariot of Tara, or Nila Saras- 
vati, is drawn by Swans, and her arms are entwined by wrigg- 
ling serpents. Nala, husband of Princess Damayanti, was closely 
connected with Swans, and was intimately associated with Kar- 
kotaka, a Naga raja, or Serpent king. Either of these may have 
laid a foundation for legendary conditions associated with Loch 
Nell and the Serpent Mound, situated in the parish of Kil- 

Sages disguised as swans inhabiting the Manasa Lake, 
came to see Bhishma.*) 

Manasa is the Serpent deity, mother of the Serpents.**) 

Kuvera's capital, as localized by Hindus, is in Tibet near 

*) Bhishma Parva of the Mah&bh&rata, 119, 97. 
**) See p. 28. 


the Manasa Lake. Is it merely coincidence that the Keltic 
Fingal has the same name as Pingal (Kuvera), that Fingal is 
the mythic proprietor of a well close to the Serpent Mound in 
Scotland, and that one of the generals of the Hindu Ravana, 
half-brother to Kuvera, carries a Serpent standard? 

Merlin of the Kelts constructs a flaming Dragon (as an 
emblem, identical with the Serpent), and this he gives to Kay 
to bear on his standard. Kay is the son of Syr Ector (Hector 
of Troy) ; and Lugh, Launcelot or Lonan, within mythological 
range of the Serpent Mound, is possessor of the Fort of Lon- 
don, the Pattern of the Great Troy! 

The facts that three of the peaks of the holy mountain 
Ben Cruachan are visible from this artificial hillock, and that 
there are traces of an altar on the mound testify to the religious 
atmosphere of this area; and the half-cremated remains which 
were found in the Serpent's head afford evidence that the 
religion was Aryan. The name of the lake immediately below 
suggests association with the tradition of India, and the whole 
neighbourhood is veiled in Keltic mythology. The lake extends 
to Glen Lonan, where there are some sculptured crosses. This 
name has its replica in the Isle of Man, where there are some 
curiously marked stones resembling others in Wales. 

It is just possible that Lonan is derived from the Serpent 
deity, Lugh. His name has acquired an N both in London 
and in Lund. 

The cathedral church in the University town of Lund, in 
Sweden, is dedicated to St. Lawrence, and it is evident that 
this is the Christian form of Lugh. In Somerset we find 
Lydeard-St. Lawrence, with the old and the new name com- 
bined, as in some of the London church dedications. 

Lugh, or Laghu, is mentioned in the Vedos. Laghu means 
Light as with the Keltic Lugh. The deity Lugh, as the son 
of Ethne (Tara) would probably have a deifical habitation 
near Loch Nell, and the Serpent Mound. 

The Chart, or diagram at the end of the book gives some 
idea of the way in which the ancient world was divided by 
the Rishis, or their human counterparts. There were nine divi- 


sions, according to some accounts, and the partitions seem to 
have extended far beyond the boundaries of India; and to 
have included a large portion of the globe. 

The name of Sumeria, inhabited by Sumerians, is probably 
associated philological ly with the Sumeru Mountains. These 
people holding the Aryan faith, and consequently monotheistic, 
were in possession before the conquest of the country by the 
Semitic Assyrians and Babylonians, and it may have been the 
Cymric traditional Summer Country. 

All the islands in the Southern Pacific and the Indian 
Ocean are included in these divisions. The most important of 
the nine divisions must have been Ilavritavarsha, in which was 
situated the holiest of holy mountains, Mt. Meru. 

One may read in the Vishnu Purana the original of the 

Oh Brahmana, the Lord Vishnu is present in the Bhadra 
Varsha in his manifestation of the Horse-headed One. 

He is present in the Ketumala Varsha in his incarnation 
of Boar, and in the Bharata Varsha as Tortoise. 

The Lord Govinda Janardana (Vishnu) is present in the 
Kuru Varsha in his Fish incarnation. And the omnipresent 
Hari (Vishnu) is present in the whole Cosmos. *) 

Although there can be no exactitude in these divisions as 
given here, there is an indication of direction in regard to the 
different incarnations, implying that they were more or less 
in various regions. 

*) See Chart. 

Chapter 9. 


Evidences of the underlying doctrine of Monotheism, form- 
ing a background to a plurality of forms, have been noticed 
during the recent excavations in Palestine. Pre- Judaic dis- 
coveries have revealed many signs of the religions of the 

Wise men, when speaking of such different gods as Indra, 
Mitra, Varuna, Agni, Suparna (the Eagle), Yama and Vayu, 
intend to convey the idea of One God only, under different 
names and aspects. Here is a declaration from the Rig Veda 
of this monotheistic principle which forms the basis of Hindu- 
ism, as derived from Aryanism. 

Much that was considered unthinkable forty, or fifty years 
ago has now loomed upon the archeological horizon as within 
the range of possibility, and sometimes even of probability; 
but mythology is still regarded as an unsuitable subject for in- 
tensive study, and, for the most part, is ignored. Nevertheless, 
it is intimately bound up with the prehistoric past, the records 
of which are frequently presented in mythological guise. 

The Sanskrit word Archa implies an image; and as the 
very core of archeology in pre-Christian times was the image 
(an allegorical picture) of the living force personified for 
whom the temple was built, or to whom the Combe, or Tirtha 
was dedicated, it seems that Archa is assuredly the foundation 
for the words Archeology and Archeologia. The faith of 
the Hindus coincides in so many respects with that of our 


Keltic forefathers that it would not be surprising if this should 
be the case. 

The symbols of the Hare, Serpent, mystic Egg, Swastika, 
Bull, Mirror, Chakra, and Boar all find a place in the sacred 
literature of the Hindus, and relics of all are to be found in 
America and the British Isles; unless, in the case of America, 
the Bull, Mirror and Boar are absent? 

The Hare is associated with the Egg at the Easter Lunar 
festival, and appears as a deity in America. We may read in 
the Salya Parva of the Mahabharata: On every recurring 
day of the New Moon, O Monarch, the god (Soma), having 
the Hare for his mark, bathes in the excellent tirtha of 
Prabhasa, and regains his form and beauty. 

It may be remembered that the Serpent followers of Vasuki 
are Red, White and Blue, and that these colours are also asso- 
ciated with Peredur of the British Isles. In the old legendary 
tradition of Wales, inhabited by some of the Pictish tribes, 
Merlin and Vortigern are connected with some Red and White 
Serpents in conflict with one another, and definitely human. 
This looks as if the three colours had represented three tribes, 
or clans within the larger tribe. The story concerning these 
two Cymric mythic figures is in connection with a building 
defended by ramparts on an isolated rock in Carnarvonshire, 
South of Snowdon. Very faint remains of old fortifications 
are still to be seen there; and the Serpents are alluded to in 
the following lines: 

And from the top of Brith so high and steep, 

Where Dinas Emris stood, shewed where the Serpents fought. 

Undoubtedly, King Arthur was a Serpent of the Serpent 
race. He and his father wore the Dragon emblem on their 
helmets. Mole Arthur, on the Malvern Hills, has on its summit 
the Hen's Egg, which, in Aryan allegory, is surrounded by the 
Egg-encircling Serpent, the Sun! And the Shields of King 
Arthur's Knights take the Ovoid form. 

Cademuir Hill in Scotland, Cadbury Hill in Somerset and 

Dorothea Chaplin 


Cadeleigh, near Tiverton, in Devon, are probably all named 
from the same source, like the name Devon itself, which is 
found in Perthshire. 

There is a tradition that on the night of the Full Moon 
King Arthur and his Knights ride round Cadbury Hill, which 
is inhabited by Fairies. The horses are shod with Silver, and 
when the procession has wound round the hill they go to 
water their horses at the Wishing Well. The special time of 
year for this ceremony seems to be Christmas Eve and St. 
John's Eve. 

The mythic kingdom of Lot, related to, or closely con- 
nected with Arthur, is now divided into Midlothian, West and 
East Lothian. Midlothian is Edinburghshire, full of remi- 
niscences of Arthur, and other mythic figures. 

One of these is Modred, or Mider, Arthur's son and 
nephew. Modred, originally, may have been the aditya Mitra, 
a twelfth part of the Sun. In Prakrit, the language of the people 
when Sanskrit was spoken by the more educated classes, 
Mitra becomes Mihir, not unlike Mider. Mitra is the 
god of Procreation, and Mider is the Morning Dew; and al- 
though this would not suggest similarity of meaning in these 
days it was otherwise in the time of the Picts. 

St. Antony is also remembered hi the remains of an an- 
cient chapel on the slopes of Arthur 3 Seat, with a Wishing Well 
close by, and Druidical stones at the back of the well. Antony's 
former name of Tantony is a reminder of other names in- 
cluding the syllable Tan, such as Glentanar, and the river 
Tanar, in Aberdeenshire, and Taunton, in Somerset, which was 
formerly known as Tantona. These may all be connected with 
the Sanskrit Tan (Fire). 

West Lothian, or Linlithgowshire still shows signs of its 
prehistoric inhabitants, and the ancient burgh of Linlithgow, 
with its palace of the kings, is presided over by St. Michael, 
or Makal, yet more ancient than the burgh. East Lothian 
contains the legendary Traprain Law, on which the rock- 
tracery is so remarkable. Some of it may be seen in the 
Museum of Antiquities in Edinburgh; and this illustra- 

Rock Drawing on Traprain Law. 


tion, like the previous one, kindly lent to me by the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland, gives some idea of it. These curious 
markings on this great slab of rock may be displaying the Maze, 
or Labyrinth associated in this instance with Themis as the 
Mother Goddess. 

The houses on Traprain Law consisted of wattle and daub, 
like many other prehistoric dwellings. A small cemetery was 
discovered on this Iron-Age hill-top, and it consisted of a group 
of cinerary urns bearing witness to the fact that the Aryan 
custom of Cremation was prevalent among these hill-dwellers. 

Cai, or Kai (Sir Kay), foster-brother of King Arthur, seems 
to have been the occupant of the Caiy Stone which stood in 
a field on the outskirts of Edinburgh not long ago, but which 
is now enclosed by a wall. It is a large monolith, and its con- 
tinued existence may be due to the fact that there is more 
of it underground than above the surface. It may be associated 
through the British god, Kai, with Kartikeya. Kai is a Fire- 
walker, like St. Antony, also connected with the environs of 
Edinburgh, and Kartikeya is a Fire-god. 

There was also an ancient pillar-stone at Dawston, or 
Degsastane, near Jedburgh, in Roxburgh, formerly known 
as Rokisburgh. This stone was at the head of Liddesdale, 
suggesting association with Lugh, or Lud. The Indian Daksha, 
who may have been the deifical occupant of this monolith, 
is an important figure in Hindu mythology. He is the father- 
in-law of Siva, or Mahadeva, with whom he had such a 
mighty quarrel. Daksha has sixty daughters, among whom are 
Sita, the first wife of Siva; Aditi, mother of the Adit y as; Diti, 
mother of the Daityas; Dana, mother of the Danavas; Muni, 
mother of Makal and Narada, and Kadru, mother of the 

Although Makal and Narada may have been mortals, or 
both deities and men, their mother, Muni, was certainly a 
deity; and, as a form of the Mother Goddess, she is evidently 
the Moon. Muni, identical with Mon and Mona, the 
former names for the Island of Anglesey, may be compared 


to the Danish M0n, pronounced somewhat like meurn. This 
is the name of an island off the coast of Seeland, and in ojd 
maps it may be seen as Mona (in 1860) as Moon Island. 

The old name for St. David's sometimes took the form of 
Mynyv; and the Cymric Y is pronounced much like the 
Danish O, when the latter is modified. 

At the extreme North of the Island of Finn (Fiinen) in 
the centre of Denmark is Finn's Head (Fyns Moved). This 
promontory is situated in the district of Hindsholm, and not 
long ago a gold Ring was discovered on Fyns Hoved by a small 
boy; and it is now in the National Museum at Copenhagen. 
Brockdorff, a little farther South, but also in Hindsholm, may 
be the Town of the Deer as the Gaelic name for a Reindeer 
was Brac, and may be mythologically connected. Hindsholm 
may be compared with the district of Hyndsland in Glasgow, 
a city founded by Kentigern, whose emblem is a Stag. 

Odense, the capital of Fiinen, is named after Odin, or 
Wotan, the Feathered Serpent. 

On the Island of Jutland (Jylland), where the great Silver 
Bowl was found at Gundestrup, there is a place called Skander- 
borg (the Castle of Skanda?), the property of the Field-marshal 
of the Army of the Aryan gods! 

Denmark (Danmark or the Field of Dana) probably re- 
ceived its name from Dana, or Brigit, mother of the Danavas. 

Bali seems to be connected with both the British Isles and 
with America. His son Vana is Mahakala (Michael). St. Va- 
lentine's Day, the fourteenth of February, is Candlemas-tide 
(Old Style), and it would seem that Bali, or Vali, when re- 
sembling the Moon-god, is St. Valentine in pre-Christian form. 

Ethne (the Blue Sarasvati) is the daughter of Balor (Bali?) 
in Keltic spheres, and she becomes his wife. Bali of India is a 
descendant of Brahma, the Creator; and Sarasvati of India 
is the daughter of Brahma, and becomes his wife a striking 
parallel between the ideas of Kelts and Hindus! The allegorical 
meaning of this relationship is the earth produced by the 
sovereign Creator, and also fertilized by him. 


Brahma, the Creator (Ka) 

Degsa (Ca) Daksha (Ka) 

Muni Muni 

I ! 

I ' I If 

Mekel Ander Makal Narada 

Ethne (Etain) possesses a name which represents the sym- 
bolic Deer. In relation to Great Britain it is evidenced by the 
sacred river Ythan, near the Abbey of Deer, in Buchan; and 
by Ettingham the name of the estate in Warwickshire be- 
longing to the Ferrers family, who have Deer supporters to 
their coat-of-arms. As regards America, the American Reindeer 
is known as a caribou; and the word Etthen means Cari- 
bou. The Cree Indians are called Etinu, thus demonstrating 
association with both Sree (Lakshmi) and Ethne (Nila Sara- 
svati). Eta is synonymous with Cree, in regard to this tribe of 
North American Indians; and Eta is the Sanskrit word which 
Max Mueller describes as indicating a certain kind of Deer. 

The ancient literature of the Hindus tells how King Sagara 
of the Solar race, dug out the measureless deep, and how 
he was presented with a Fiery Weapon by his Preceptor Aurva, 
grandson of Manu. Aurva, himself, had a hundred sons, and 
these had offspring who spread by thousands over the earth. 

There is much to substantiate the- belief that a huge body 
of invaders (prospective settlers) made their way to America 
and Britain from Asia; as alluded to (as far as America is 
concerned) in the Kiche MS.; and, apparently, these early 
invaders of Patala and of the British Isles were Danavas, 
Daityas and Serpents, in human form. Their emblems may 
be seen throughout America, and their tracks followed through 
country where they have left innumerable relics. 

Guatemala may be part of the Ketumalavarsha, in which 
Narayana manifested himself as the Boar. When in conver- 
sation with Narada on the King of Mountains, Mt. Meru, 
Narayana says to this foremost of men, I am the Pitri of 
both the Pitris and the deities Becoming the Equine- 
head,*) I rove through the Western and the Northern Ocean*, 

*) See p. 127. 


between which is Guatemala, and in which is situated the 
White Island, as seen from the Sumeru range. 

The essence of the religious aspect of the Aryans is to be 
found in Britain and America, North, Central and South. 

Mr. Christopher Dawson, in The Age of the Gods (1934) 
quotes the following relating to the beliefs of the Tlingit In- 
dians of Alaska: The Tlingits do not divide the universe 
arbitrarily into so many different quarters ruled by super- 
natural beings. On the contrary, supernatural power impresses 
them as a vast immensity, one in kind and impersonal, inscrut- 
able as to its nature, but whenever manifesting itself to men 
taking a personal, and it might be said a human personal form 
in whatever aspect it displays itself. Thus the sky spirit is the 
ocean of supernatural energy as it manifests itself in the sky, 
the sea spirit as it manifests itself in the sea, the bear spirit 
as it manifests itself in the bear, the rock spirit as it manifests 

itself in the rock, etc., there appears to be but one name 

for this spiritual power, Yok.*) 

With regard to these manifestations we might compare a 
passage from the Ramayana relating to Hanuman, the monkey 
divinity, who, though conversant with the sacred literature, 
nevertheless displays his simian characteristics when he thinks 
he has found Sita in Lanka. Demonstrating great joy, that 
leader of monkey-bands rejoiced exceedingly. And thereat 
(Hanuman) struck at his hands, kissed his tail, exhibited signs 
of glee, frolicked, sang, darted towards the pillars, shot up to 
the top thereof, jumped down to the earth, manifesting his 
monkey nature.**) 

The word Yok employed by the Tlingit Indians must 
surely be the Sanskrit word Toga, or Tog, which actually means 
a Yoke (of self -discipline). Siva, third person of the Hindu 
trinity, is the Master of Toga. It may be that the name of the 

*) J. R. Swan ton, >Social Conditions, Beliefs and Linguistic Relations 
of the Tlingit Indians*, Twenty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology. 
**) The italics are mine. 


Tlingit Indians of Alaska contains some remembrance of the 
Siva Linga. 

The Eastern Snakes, farther South, call themselves, or were 
called Washakie's Band; what can this mean but Vasuki's 
Biand, or the tribe of Vasuki, Snake king of the Netherworld? 

The Pennacook tribe of Indians, whose name is reflected 
at Pennicuik in Scotland, was the strongest and most in- 
fluential of the Pennacook Confederacy, and therefore its 
members were more likely to extend their influence than one 
with lesser activity. Apparently, they reached the shores of 

Kansa is a Danava, son of Ugrasena, mentioned in the 
Adi Parva of the Mahabharata, and may have been the ori- 
ginal Patron of the American Kansas City. 

Sir Grafton Elliot Smith pointed out the likeness in Maya 
carvings to Indian elephants, and Indians with typical head- 

Indian navigators it was known had combed out the is- 
lands in the Pacific, such as Easter Island and many others, 
and it was unthinkable that they should not have discovered 
a continent that stretched from pole to pole.*) 

Asiatic artists among the Mayan settlers would bring with 
them a recollection of the Elephant, which is the vehicle of 
Indra, and one of the vehicles of Vishnu. A stone at Fergus, 
Dyce, Aberdeenshire, has the Elephant symbol and also a 
Z-rod. The latter symbol is also found on the Tomachar Stone, 
and on the carved stone at Migvie in the Strath of Dee. The 
Migvie Stone bears on the obverse a cross of plait-work, with 
the double disc, and Z-rod. This emblem might possibly be 
the Thunderbolt and Hook in conjunction with one of the 
other emblems on this stone; and which is referred to in the 
Ramayana and the Bhagavata. 

When Hanuman, the Monkey Messenger, roves round 
Lanka he notices palaces and houses shaped like the Thunder- 
bolt and Hook. Many goddesses, including Durga, hold a 

*) Morning Post, 26 March, 1926, Birth of Maya Culture*. 


Hook, and the Thunderbolt is a symbol of Indra, god of Rain. 
The signs of a Flag, a Thunderbolt and a Hook on the soles 
of the feet are considered very auspicious, and were found on 
the soles of Krishna. 

The beautiful Migvie Stone is six feet high, and has a 
Horseshoe among its symbols. In the Times (15. 8. 38.) an 

The Tomachar Stone. 

article appeared entitled Horse-shoes, and it shows a link 
with India. It is a far cry from Gloucester city to the plains 
of India, but there the feet of Government bullocks are shod 
with half-shoes (we used to call them cues in this country) 
which have just such nail-holes and nails as were popular in 
Britain before the Roman occupation.^ 

In one of her forms, the Keltic Mother Goddess must have 
been Gauri, with the Mirror symbol. The Aboyne Stone on 
Deeside has the Mirror incised upon it; and the Formaston 
Stone which also has Keltic Basket-work. On a stone at Meigle 
a Serpent appears with the Mirror.*) 

St. Sita of Christian times may have emerged from Sita, 

*) See Sculptured Stones of Scotland*, by Romilly Allan. 


wife of Rama, and the ideal of Hindu Womanhood. Sita, like 
Grainne of the Kelts, is goddess of sacred Springs. Numerous 
thermal wells in India are dedicated to the Queen of Rama, 
and they go by the name of Sita-Kundas, or Sita's Wells. In 
Europe the emblem of St. Sita is a holy Well! The surname 
Sitwell is thought to have originated from the French, but 
might owe its origin primarily to Sita (Lakshmi). 

The royal sage, Kratha, an Asura, mentioned in the Adi 
Parva of the Mahabharata, may once have presided in Keltic 
form over Crathie, in Aberdeenshire. 

The London coat-of-arms already described as having the 
Wing of a Dragon above it appears to me to be more closely 
associated with the Griffin than the Dragon, although the 
Dragon takes such a prominent part in prehistoric symbolism. 
The Griffin is associated with Apollo, and thus probably with 
the Christian St. Paul and the pre-Christian Fal (Phala).*) 
This mythic creature is seen at Temple Bar, the gateway to 
the City of London. 

The London churches, in some instances, have retained 
mythological reminiscences; their names seen to be linked in 
certain cases, with allegorical figures of a pre-Christian age. 
St. Nicholas Cole Abbey; St. Bride's Church, with Bridewell, 
presumably the Well of Bride (Bharati); St. Nicholas Aeons, 
which, possibly has for its second name a corruption of 
Eogan, or Eochu, and St. Catherine Cree in Leadenhall 
Street, which seems to possess a memorial to Cree, or Sree, in 
its second name. This church has a St. Catherine's Wheel 
(Chakra) in one of the windows, not at all ancient as regards 
its execution, but nevertheless carrying forward a symbolic idea 
of immense antiquity. Within a short distance is St. Peter's, 

There is a church dedicated to St. Catherine at Barnby- 
on-the-Moor, described as within the liberty of St. Peter's, 
York. A Fair is held here on the Thursday preceding St. 
Peter's Day. Marlborough possesses a church dedicated to St. 

*) See p. 65. 


Peter within a very short distance of the ancient Mound in 
the College grounds; and, above it, in Savernake Forest, is 
the very old church of St. Catherine. One may remember in 
this connection that St. Peter, in the form of the Christian 
Peder, or Peredur, is the son of Ila (Sree, or Cree). 

The emblematic Wheel (Chakra, or Yantra), symbol of 
Lakshmi, or Sree, represents the Sun. Another Sanskrit word, 
Ratha, also means Wheel, and the old Irish word Raes 
has the same meaning, and also shows a connection with the 
Chakra. Near the Shannon and the village of Shana Golden 
in Ireland is Castle Shenet, or Shanid, possibly named after 
Shani (Saturn), who, in India, is the god Yama. This Irish 
rath, or earth-work is in the form of a Chakra, suitably asso- 
ciated with Yama, a twelfth part of the Sun! The Indian 
Shani, god of Misfortune, has his reflection among the Gaels 
as Shanny. He was probably honoured at one time at Shen- 
field in Essex. 

Professor Jung of Zurich makes reference to the Disc of 
the Sun in Modern Man in Search of a Souk. But, if I under- 
stand rightly, he speaks of it only in connection with Buddhism. 
This religion founded by Buddha, the ninth incarnation of 
Vishnu, is very much less ancient than Hinduism, and its 
emblems. The conventionalized Sun's Disc is a mathematical 
elaboration of the numbers four, eight, sixteen, and so on; a 
point which may be noticed in some of the Sun temples in 
Central America. 

The Lord Buddha codified Hinduism, and Buddhism is a 
replica of it. Hindu deities appear under other names in 
Buddhist Japan, and there are other signs of the Hindu religion 
in the background. 

Who brought the Chakra and introduced the Boar symbol 
to these islands if not the Picts? And who can prove that, in 
the first instance, the Chakra was taken from Switzerland to 
Britain? The direction in the first case may have been the 

The Red and Yellow Sun Dance of Professor Jung's coun- 
try was performed in London during the International Folk 


Dance Festival in 1935, and is charming with its Sun-flower 
effect. It is, however, more probably of Hindu than of Buddhist 

The Boar seems to have left philological tracks in certain 
quarters in England, as I have already endeavoured to show; 
and I have since discovered some more possibilities which seem 
worthy of consideration; Burham, called Borham in Domesday, 
Boresford, Herefordshire (the Ford of the Boar), Borrowash, 
Derbyshire, Borrowby, near Leake, North Riding of Yorkshire, 
Borrow Beck, Kensdale, Westmoreland and Bosworth Hus- 
bands, Leicestershire which, in the Domesday Book, is Bares- 
worde (the Worp of the Boar). 

Boscombe and Burlescombe in their former mode of spel- 
ling, Boscumb, or Boscumba, and Burlescumb more 
nearly approach the Sanskrit word Cathacumba, in regard to 
their second syllables, than in the later forms. 

Edburton, Sussex, like so many other places with similar 
names, has a church dedicated to St. Andrew. 

Ferry Hill, six and a half miles from Durham, may have 
something to do with the symbolic Boar (Varaha}. In this 
modern village there is the fragment of an old stone cross, 
called Cleve's Cross, which is supposed to commemorate the 
valour of one Roger de Ferry who slew a monster wild boar. 
This might be a legend of later times, like that of St. George 
killing the Dragon, and this hero of Ferry hill may have im- 
personated the Boar. 

As regards Borreaton Park, Shropshire, the author of the 
Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names suggests that the 
prefix may be Boar. Burwarton, in the same county, appears 
in Domesday as Burertone (the Town of Bar aha, the Boar?). 
Burwarton Hall, is the seat of Viscount Boyne, whose name 
probably owes its origin to a mythological source. Boyne, 
probably Scotch in the first case, and afterwards Irish, is pro- 
bably identical with Aboyne, and the name of the river 
Boyne in Ireland; all founded on Bo, the sacred Cow of the 
Kelts, allied to Bo Find, St. Bee, or Bigha and Brigit. The crest 
of Viscount Boyne is an Oak-tree, and the shrine of Brigit at 


Kildare was in an Oak-grove. Brigit is Bharati (Sarasvati, the 
Holy Cow), and closely connected with Gauri, whose emblem 
is a Mirror; and with Varuni, wife of Varuna, the Ocean. 
Two Mermaids with Mirrors appear as Supporters to the coat- 
of-arms of the Viscounts Boyne, emphasizing the Aryan origin 
of their family. 

The Fomorians, when represented in a mythological light, 
as in The Destruction of Da Derga's Hostel, may be identical 
with the Indian Vyamas, or Fumes. In Dowson's Classical 
Dictionary, he describes the Vyamas as the Pitris of the bar- 
barians^ In the atmosphere of Tara the Fomorians seem to 
coincide with the Vyamas as the Hostel was the scene of Fire 
ceremonies. At Kilmorack in Scotland there is a hill called 
Dun-Famhair (the Fomorians' Hill). Famhair is a Gaelic 
word from which Fumes might have originated, both 
emanating from the Sanskrit Vyama. According to Manu and 
the Rig Veda, as given by Dowson, these particular Pitris 
were of a class called Agni-Dagdha. As the Dagda is a Keltic 
god of Fire surely it cannot be merely a coincidence that the 
words Dagda, and Dagdha are practically the same? 

Pitri takes the form of Pita in the Sanskrit nominative 
Singular; and, with the discarding of the terminal A, the 
word becomes Pit, from which may have originated the Bri- 
tish surname Pitt and the people called Pitts, or Picts. 

It Is remarked by Alexander Macbain that: Not a line 
of either poetry or prose has been recorded as Pictish. If 
Pictish was the name of a language this is strange, but was 
it? Pictish in the early days of Pictish history may have been 
a religious term, and without any racial significance whatso- 
ever, like the words Hindu and Muslim, or Mahomedan 
as a Muslim is called in Europe. 

The Pitris of ancient India appear to be the ancestors of 
the Picts, in a religious sense. They were not a nation, and 


probably neither were the Picts. There is no language of the 
Hindus, as Hindus, although many languages are spoken 
among them, according to their nationality. It is probable that 
for the same reason, the Picts never spoke Pictish, but that, 
according to which part of the British Isles became their home, 
they spoke an early form of Gaelic, Cymric or Norn. 

Pittar is a surname among Bengali Hindus. 

The Pitris, or Pitaras, came to be called Pinda.*) Penda 
is a pagan king of Mercia ! 

Galedo, or Lossio Veda, as a Pict, may be associated with 
the Irish earldom of Caledon. This noble family have for Sup- 
porters to their coat-of-arms Dexter, a Mermaid with a Mirror; 
Sinister, an Elephant, and their seat is recorded in De Brett's 
Peerage as Derglodge. Derg is suggestive of the goddess 
Durga, or Gauri, whose Mirror may be observed in rock- 
carvings in Morayshire, in which county are Lossiemouth and 
the river Lossie! 

There is a Castle of Dundarg in Buchan.**) 

When Narayana is conversing with Narada on the heights 
of Mt. Meru prior to the departure of the divine Musician 
for the White Island, he tells Narada that the inhabitants have 
lunar complexions, apparently describing in mythological 
parlance, the blonde faces of the islanders. 

Taliessin writes thus of the first settlers in Britain: 

Men of the country of Asia, 
Men of the country of Gafis, 
Said to be a skilful people, 
But the district is unknown. 

Book of Taliessin, liv. 

The theory that the early British settlers found their way 
here from Egypt does not accord with this account as Taliessin 
distinctly mentions Asia as their home. He refers to Serpents 
(the Serpent, or Naga race?), who can be traced to Asia; 
and among them he places himself. 

*) Santi Parva of the Mahdbhdrata. 
##) See The Border History of England and Scotland^, by Ridpath. 


I am a Druid. 
I am an artificer; 
I am a scientific one. 
I am a Serpent. 

Book of Taliessin, Ixxxix. 

Further of himself Taliessin says: 

Prince of Chief Bards am I to Elphin,*) 
And my original country is the region of the summer stars. 

Elphin, apparently, was used both as a personal, and 
as a geographical name; and as the latter it obviously refers 
to the White Island (Sveta Dwipa). 

The name of the American State of Minnesota means 
whitish water (Minn-water; sot ah- whitish) ;**) and hviti 
is an Irish word for white. Both these words indicating 
whiteness may be of Sanskrit origin (Cf. sotah and sveta, 
also hviti and sveta). 

Taliessin is the son of Gwyn who is equated with Finn, or 
Find, the Great Hunter of the Gael; and, as I have already 
suggested, Find may be identical with Vibhandaka, who lived 
in an Indian forest; Taliessin being identical with Ossian, or 
Rosgrana, the counterpart of Rishysringa of India, and the son 
of Finn. 

Taliessin is the allegorical Seed. Kerid, or Keridwen, known 
under these names in . Wales and in Cornwall, is the Spirit 
of Various Seeds, and the mother of the Son-god, Taliessin. 
Keridwen places her infant son in a Coracle (the Sun-boat), 
and he floats on the Cosmic Ocean. He is discovered by Elphin, 
otherwise Alba, from whom may have evolved the names of 
Elphinstone and Alva. 

Is not this allegory relating to the birth of Taliessin very 
full of symbolic meaning? The Cauldron of Kerid, and the 
Holy Grail of Ila are one and the same, representing Sarasvati 

*) The island of Alba, or Alban. 
**) See Seven Years Residence in the Great Deserts of North American. 


and Lakshmi, the two chief aspects of the Mother Goddess in 
Keltic form, and this Cauldron, or Grail is brought from some 
far-off land. 

Taliessin, as a newly-born child (the Son) arrives in an 
allegorical manner from Asia, in the Ship of the Sun, and this 
Serpent child, who later on becomes a Druid, is received by 
Alba, or Elphin, personifying the White Island! 




"~ ~~ c> ;a 



VAVU---- Chs. 34 and following 

MATS y A- -Chs. 133 and following 

VISHNU- --Port I. Ch. 2. and following 

BHAGAVATA- Part Y Chs. 6 and following 

/.Other Mahapuronas also give the some information 

Mahobharato Bhishmo Parvo. (Book H) Ch.Sand following 





By... A.PALIT, 


Abbey of Deer, 51, 52, 121 ; of 

Westminster, 17, 34, 71, 


Abbots Bromley, 54, 72, 73, 98, 99 
Aberdeen, 120, 122124 
Aberdeenshire, 10, 52, 66, 80, 


Aboyne Records, 57 ; Stone, 96, 137 
Abyssinia, 58, 59 
Aditya (the Sun), 20 
Adit y as, 16, 21, 88, 89, 99, 130, 

1 39 ; mother of the, 94 
Aed, Keltic god of Fire, 53, 80, 112, 


Africa, 59, 86, 87 
Agni, Spirit of Fire, 50, 51, 75, 113, 

114; colours of, 62, 90; 

vehicle of, 62 

Aikey Brae, 121 ; Aikey's Fair, 121 
Aillil, Aila, or Aida, 77, 80, 9395 
Alan, or Ila, 80, 9395 
Alaska, 18, 22, 29, 30, 43, 44, 135, 


Alba, or Alban, 14, 143, 144 
Alford, Miss V., Lecture by, 89 
Alfriston, 31 
Algonkin, or Algonkian Indians of 

America, 34 
Allan, Clan, 94, 95 
All Hallows, 17, 74, 109 
Altai Mountains, 14, 24, 111 
America, 2430, 58, 134136; 

American legend, 70 ; Mexico, 

27, 28, 125 

Dorothea Chaplin 

Anait (Anahata), (Mother God- 
dess), 58, 59 
Ananta, or Sesha, Serpent deity, 39, 

Andrew, St., 913, 15, 42, 56; 

colours of, 102 
Andrew's, St., 9, 18, 101 
Anglesey, Isle of, 18, 96, 132, 133 
Angus (Angiras), 52, 115, 116 
Angus (Forfar), 18, 52, 55, 115 
Antipodes (Patala), 2527, 87, 115 
Antony, St., 39, 62, 130 
Apah, the Cosmic Waters, 48, 54, 


Apples, Symbolic, 75 77 
Argyll, 1, 1921, 30, 100, 125 
Arthur, King, 1921, 39, 94, 102, 

105, 124; in Fairyland, 112, 


Arya, 53, 115 
Aryan religion, 24, 33, 34, 77, 78, 


Aryas, or Aryans, 22, 57, 100 
Ash-tree, 60 
Astika, 27 

Avalon, or Avallach, 75 
Avebury, 30 
Ayrshire, 30, 95 
Aztecs, 27, 28 

Bali, or Beli, 25, 5961, 133 
Ball-game, 69 71 
Basket, or Corn Measure, 69, 74, 



Basques, 61, 90, 102 
Bavaria, 6365, 118 
St. Bee, or Begha, 15, 117 
Be Find, or Bo Find, 15, 98 
Berkshire, 65, 66, 110 
Bhaga, an adit y a, 99 
Bharadwaj, Indian deity, 116 
Bharata, 37,- 124, 125 
Bharatavarsha, 37, 59, 127 
Bharati, 15, 19 

Bhishma, poet-philosopher-warrior, 
19, 125 

Bighapur, 117, 118 

Birds symbolizing Fire, 113, 115 

Boadicea, or Boudicca, 121 

Boar symbol, 914, 20, 22, 23, 
140; incarnations of, 15, 21 
23, 127; legends, 10, 140; 
standard, 117 

Bothie, 97, 98 

Bowl, Gundestrup, 81 84 

Boy Bishop, 110 

Boy deity, 69 

Brahma, the Creator, 10, 22, 76, 
133; Ladle, 72, 73; temples in 
honour of, 77 

Brahma, or Brahman, the One Su- 
preme Being, 22 

Brahmin Caste, 62, 74 

Bran, or Vran, 75 77 

Bress, or Breas, 51, 52, 116 

Brigit, Brite or Bride, 12, 15, 19, 
29, 99, 100 

Brihaspati (Jupiter), 71, 115, 116 

Brittany, 30; Breton folk-lore, 113; 
St. Michael in, 16, 17 

Buchanan, Old name for, 97 

Buckinghamshire, 11 

Budha (Mercury), 25, 35, 72, 74, 75 

Buddha, 35, 47, 139 

Bulls, Sacred, 90, 91 

Burghead, 9092 

Ca, or Ka, Indian deity, 10, 134 

Cactus-plant, 28 

Caer Droia, 117 

Cambridge, 12 

Camelot, 1921 

Campbell, Clan, 20 

Camps, British, 20, 58, 92, 116 

Can, or Chandra, the Moon-god, 

25, 34 

Canada, Name of, 29, 43 
Cardrona, 116, 117; name of, 118 
Cashmere, or Kashmir, 124 
Cat, Demon, 112 
Catherine, St., 43, 118, 138, 139 
Cernunnos, Keltic god, 81, 84 
Chair, Coronation, 78 
Chakra, or Sacred Wheel, 24, 40, 
41, 138, 139; in warfare, 118, 

Chart, 25, 126, 127, 144 
Cheshire, 15, 16, 65, 79 
Chilham, 71 

City States, 37, 124, 125 
Clans, Allan, 94, 95 ; Buchanan, 
97 ; Morgan, 94 ; Sandiliya, 94 
Clavie ceremony, 91 
Colours, Symbolic, 65, 79, 101 ; 
Basque, 102; Scottish, 102; 
Welsh, 66 

Constitution, British, 104 
Cooch Behar Fire ceremonies, 64, 


Coracle, or Curragh, 47, 48, 143 
Cornish language, 11, 35 
Corn Measure, or Basket, 69, 74, 

116, 117 

Cornwall, 19, 49, 51, 101, 102, 109; 
Ball-game in, 69, 71 ; Furry 
Dance, 61 ; Padstow, 63 
Coronation ceremonies, 77 79 
Cosmic Waters, or Ocean, 41, 48, 

76, 87, 101, 143 
Council of Elders, 103 
Cow, Sacred, 15, 96, 97 


Cree Indians of America, 43, 51, 

95, 134 
Cremation, Hindu custom of, 33, 

34, 110, 121, 126, 132 
Cross, St. Andrew's, 1, 102; Tau 

Cross, 51 
Cruden, 34 
Cuchulinn, 36 ; as Boy-god, 68 ; as 

the Cuckoo, 68, 69 ; Feathered 

Serpent, 35 
Cuckoo legend, 69 
Cumaean Gates, 117 
Cumberland, 9, 69 
Curtana, or Sword of Mercy, 78, 79 

Da Derga's Hostel, 113, 114, 116, 


Dagda, Keltic god of Fire, 141 
Dairy-house, or bothay, 97, 98 
Daityas, 26, 60; mother of the, 132 
Daksha, 10, 48, 132 
Danavas, 88, 99 
David, St., 18, 93, 94 
David's St., 9, 12, 93, 94, 102, 133 
Deer, Abbey of, 51, 52; Book of, 

52, 55, 94 
Deer emblem, 13, 47, 48, 50, 52 


Denmark, 73, 8184, 132, 133 
Derbyshire, 12, 18, 57, 115, 140 
Devasena, or Shashthi, 50, 51, 96 
Devonshire, 12, 13, 99, 112, 117, 

118, 129, 130 
Dimapur, 40 
Dinkelsbuhl, 6365 
Disc of the Sun, 22, 139, 140 
Dorset, 12, 60, 69 
Dragon emblem, 33, 38 42, 65, 66, 

129; deities, 66, 67 
Drona, 70, 71, 115120 
Drostan (Sir Trystram), 51, 52, 55, 

57, 58, 106 
Druids, 58, 89, 90, 101106; Ash 

Green, 60 

Durga, Mother Goddess, 36, 94, 

114, 115, 136 
Durham, 66, 140 
Dyus Pitara, 79 

Eagle, The, 28, 98, 128 
Earth allegorized as a Cow, 15, 98 
Earth houses, or weems, 120 
Earth Mother, 63, 64, 69, 71, 93, 


Edain, or Etain, 50, 51, 53, 96 
Edinburgh, 17, 53; Castle, 114; 

coat-of-arms, 53 
Egg, Symbolic, 101, 102, 129 
Elephant symbol, 73, 136 
Elgin, 52, 109, 125 
Elliot Smith, Sir Graf ton, 36, 136 
Eochu, King of Tara, 45, 50, 51, 

79, 96 
Eskimos, 58 

Essex, 11, 121, 122, 125 
Ethiopia, 59 
Ethne, 25, 60, 133, 134 

Fairies, 108, 109, 112, 130; Fairy 

Faulds, 123 

Fal, Keltic deity, 71, 7578, 138 
Feather, Castle, 81 
Feathers, Symbolic, 80, 81 
Fertility Cult, The, 1416, 63, 64, 


Fife, 9, 18, 4648, 95 
Fiji, 88 

Fingal, 30, 98, 125, 126 
Finn, the Great Hunter, 47, 143 
Fire symbolized by Birds, 113, 115 
Fisher-folk, 17; in Brittany, 16, 17 
Flag, Basque, 102 ; Indian, 26, 117 ; 

Scottish, 102; of St. George, 

62, 65 

Fomorians, 25, 26, 60, 140, 141 
France, 16, 17, 84, 89, 112 
Furry Dance, 6163 



Gaelic, 10, 20, 38, 48, 86, 97, 98, 

120, 133, 141 

Galloway, 19, 43, 57, 80, 95, 120 
Games, Ball, 35, 6971 
Gandhara, Province of, 37 
Gandharvas, 25, 36; Deva-Gand- 

harvas, 18, 121 

Gauri, Mother Goddess, 90, 137 
George, St., 6167 
Germany, 35, 6365, 69, 110 
Glasgow, 49, 133; coat-of-arms, 50, 


Glossop, 34 

Gloucestershire, 70, 73, 91, 137 
Grail, Holy, 75, 79, 80, 143, 144 
Grainne (Grace), 121, 138 
Grotto at Margate, 30, 31 
Gubbio ceremony, 62, 63 
Guinevere, wife of King Arthur, 15, 

19, 20 

Haddington, 9, 45 

Hampshire, 11, 12, 21 

Hanuman, Monkey Messenger, 135 


Hare, Symbolic, 34, 70, 129 
Hari, the Developed Seed, 127 
Hebrides, 18, 81, 86, 120 
Herefordshire, 91, 140 
Herne, the Hunter, 81, 82 
Hertfordshire, 93 
Hinduism, 14, 22, 104, 139; tenets 

of, 34, 51 

Horn-dance, 54, 72, 73, 99 
Horse-shoe symbol, 13, 80, 137 
Humboldt, Alexander von, 25, 26 

Ila, 61, 80, 93, 143 
Ilavritavarsha, 127 
Indian Images, 28, 29 
Indian village life, 103 
Indivisibility and Relativity, 56, 57 
Indra, an adit y a and King of the 

gods, 89 
Invisibility, Cases of, 105108 

Ireland, 51, 85, 88, 96, 103, 114; 

Castle Shenet, 139; Kildare, 

99; Tipperary, 36 
Italy, 62, 63, 93 

Ka, Indian deity and mountain 

peak, 10, 111 

Kai (Sir Kay), 118, 119, 126, 132 
Kali, Indian deity, 16 
Kartikeya, 50, 74, 91, 96, 132; as 

Boy-god, 68 

Kayashtha, or Scribe Caste, 17, 18 
Kelts, 35, 56, 62, 118 
Kent, 30, 31, 61, 99, 110, 112; 

Chilham, 71 ; Margate Grotto, 

30, 31 ; Romney, 110 
Kentigern, 45, 4750, 80 
Keridwen, Keltic Mother Goddess, 

75, 101, 143 

Ketumalavarsha, 44, 127, 134 
Knappers, Excavations at, 35, 58 
Kshatriya Caste, 36, 62, 70, 71 
Kubera, or Kuvera, god of Wealth, 

29, 30, 38, 125, 126 
Kukulcan, Serpent deity, 35 
Kunti, or Prithvi, the Earth Mo- 
ther, 71 

Lachish (Tel Duweir), 60, 61 

Lake dwellings, 123 

Lakshmi, or Sree, 20, 61, 95 

Lancashire, 36 

Leek symbol, 93, 94 

Leicestershire, 12, 93, 123, 140 

Lincolnshire, 10, 11, 13 

Loch Nell, 30, 125 

London, 34, 104 106; churches, 

10, 52, 71, 138; coat-of-arms, 

65, 138; Fort of, 73, 117, 118; 

Lothbury, 81 
Lossiemouth, 125 
Lot, King of Lothian, and of Lon- 

donesia, 33, 35, 45 
Lotus emblem, 21, 119, 122, 123 


Lugh, the Sun-god, 25, 35, 45, 71, 

73, 74, 125, 126 
Lydda in Palestine, 61, 65 

Macbeth, 92 

Mah&bh&rata, 14, 125; quotations 

from, 49, 50, 77, 129; Serpent 

sacrifice, 37, 38; War, 68, 

117; White Island, 14, 15, 19 
Mahamaya, 21, 22, 57, 58 
Mallena, or Malini, 49, 50 
Malvern, 58, 102, 129 
Man, Isle of, 10, 11, 86, 87, 126 
Manasa, Serpent deity, 28, 125, 126 
Mandan Indians, of America, 113 
Maruts, 54, 89 
Mashonaland, 59, 86 
Matter, Myth and Spirit, 26, 49, 

58, 80 

Mayas, 35, 136 
Maypole, 15, 57 
Maze design, 117, 132 
Meave (Queen Mab), 109 
Medicine, Ayurvedic, 90 
Merlin, 20, 105, 126, 129 
Meru, Mt., 14, 24, 111, 127; Si- 

tanta, 36 
Mexico, 27, 28, 35, 125; coat-of- 

arms, 28 
Michael, St., 1518, 58, 59, 61, 

66; in Brittany, 16, 17 
Middlesex, 17 
Midlothian, 76, 130 
Mind, 14, 15, 39, 41, 57, 125 
Mirror symbol, 90, 137 
Mitra, an aditya, 128, 130 
Mitra, S. M., 90 
Modern Man in Search of a Souk, 


Modred, or Mider, 51, 130 
Mohenjo Daro, 84 
Monoliths, 34, 73, 132; in Fiji, 88 
Monotheism, 21, 22, 128 

Moon, The, 59, 86, 101, 132 133; 
Hare, or Rabbit, 34, 59, 7.0, 

Morayshire, 90, 91, 125 

Morris Dancers, 62, 89, 90 

Mother, The Great, (Mahamaya), 
21, 22, 57, 58 

Mounds, Sacred, 30, 65, 91, 110; 
in America, 27 

Muni, 10, 13, 16; possible associa- 
tion with place-names, 15, 18, 
19, 132, 133 

Nagas, 2628, 33, 34, 65, 87, 124; 
celestial food of, 86 ; as trea- 
sure-seekers, 30 

Nalanda University, 41, 42 

Names, Personal, 12, 13, 20, 50, 
89, 94, 95, 9799 

Nana Sahib, 107, 108 

Narada, 1316, 18, 23, 43 

Narada Waterfall, 29, 43 

Narayana, 1315, 87, 134; Sym- 
bols of, 41 

Nature, Forces of, 56, 57 

Navajo Indians of America, 73 

Niagara Falls, 43, 44 

Nicholas, St., 50, 54, 73, 110; 
Combe St. Nicholas, 110; in 
Westminster Abbey, 74 

Nigg, 3133 

Nila Sarasvati (the Blue Sarasvati), 
60, 133 

Norfolk, 12, 13, 60, 91 

Northamptonshire, 91 

Northumberland, 80, 81, 93 

Norway, 39 42 ; Stave church, 40 

Ohio, 27, 43, 44 
Oklahoma, 29, 88 
Orkney Islands, 33, 69, 109 
Oscar, or Oscara, 54, 106 
Ossian, 47, 53, 54 
Oxford, 21 


Palestine, 60, 61, 128 

Palit, Akhilachandra, 21, 82 

Patala (the Netherworld), 2527, 
44, 87, 115 

Peacock as Fire-bird, 113, 115 

Peebleshire, 92, 116, 117 

Pennacook Indians of America, 136 

Penrith, 9 

Peredur (Sir Perceval), 72, 74 76, 
79, 80, 105, 139 

Perthshire, 18, 57, 71, 92, 116 

Peru, 61 

Peterhead, 92, 93 

Peter's Castle, 80 

Pevensey Castle, 11 

Picts, or Pitts, 103, 141 ; pre-chris- 
tian church of, 56 ; Pictish, 
141, Pictish lake-dwellings, 123 

Pillar-stones, 9, 34, 75 ; in India, 

Pingala, 30, 98, 126 

Pitris, 134, 141 

Place-names, 1015, 1823, 36, 
49, 52, 60, 91, 93, 95, Amer- 
ican, 2730, 43, 44, 143; 
Indian, 117, 118; derived from 
Mahamaya, 57, 58 ; Miscel- 
laneous, 61, 65, 66 

Platter, Wooden, wirth Turtle, 59 

Puranas, 25, 74, 88, 121 ; Vishnu 
Purana, 114, 127 

Pururva, son of Budh, 72, 74 77, 

Qalqiliya, 61 

Quetzalcoatl, of Mexico, 35 

Rama, 26, 43, 53, 54, 79 
Ram&yana, 26, 27, 37, 53, 68, 79 ; 

Black Magic, 105, 106; Hanu- 

man, 135137 
Rlvana, 26, 27, 29, 53, 54 
Reincarnation, 51 
Renfrewshire, 81 

Rig Veda, 24, 50, 78, 88, 141 

Rings, Symbolic, 79, 80 

Ripon, 76, 77 

Rita (Sarasvati), 79 

Rivers, Sacred, 48 50, 93 

Rocks and Stones, 76, 78 ; inscribed, 
51, 55; Sculptured, 9, 80, 90, 
136, 137; Traprain Law, 45, 
46, 130132 

Ross-shire, 3133 

Roxburgshire, 69, 132 

Round Table, The, 21 

Rudra, god of the Winds, 16, 54 

Rutlandshire, 73 

Sabrina, nymph of the Severn, 49 
Sagara, King of Ayodhya, 26, 134 
Salmon, 76, 77, 80 
Saman, or Shaman, Feast of, 17 
Sanddhe, father of David, 93, 94 
Sarasvati (the White Goddess), 15, 

19, 79, 96 
Seeds, Symbolic, 14, 47, 64, 65, 75, 

114, 117, 142, 143; in Camp- 
bell motto, 20 
Serf, or Sair, St., 47, 50 
Serpent, or Dragon emblem, 30 

33; Mound, 30, 125; temple, 

Serpent, or Dragon deities, 34 36, 

68, 69 

Sesha, or Shesha, 27, 39, 44, 87 
Seven Years Residence in the 

Great Deserts of North Am- 

erica, 36 

Shahmanism, 25, 28,58 
Ships, Viking, 39, 40 
Shoshonee tribes of America, 27, 

44, 87, 88 
Shropshire, 15, 140 
Sidh, Land of, 73, 105, 108, 112, 

Siddhas, 25, 36, 113 


Sita, wife of Rama, 63, 64, 136 

Siva, 22, 25, 43, 47, 60, 132, 135; 

as Lord of Beasts, 84 ; as Lord 

of Physicians, 90 ; vehicle of, 


Siwash Indians of America, 27 
Skanda, Field-marshal of the Army 

of the gods, 38, 133 
Sky-god, 22, 79 
Snake tribes of America, 27 
Snake workship, 73 
Soma, Moon-god, 25, 29, 129 
Somaliland, 85, 87 
Somersetshire, 10, 12, 20, 76; 

Camelot, 1921 ; Combe St. 

Nicholas, 110 
Sramanas, 58 

Sree, or Lakshmi, 21, 61, 95, 98 
Staffordshire, 48, 72, 73, 98, 99 
Strange Story, A, 105 
Sudras, 100 
Suffolk, 91, 121 
Sumerians, 24, 1 1 1 
Surrey, 22, 37, 60, 99 
Surya, Indian Sun-god, 98 
Sussex, 11, 13, 31, 57, 69 
Swastika, 28, 33, 34, 43, 76, 88 ; on 

Newton Stone, 55 
Sweden, 126 
Swords, Symbolic, 65, 78, 79 

Takhoma, Mt., 28, 29 

Takshasila (Taxila), 29, 3638, 

124, 125 
Taliessin, 19, 141143; Book of, 

142, 143 
Taltiu, 85 
Tara, the Blue Sarasvati, 60, 66, 


Tara in Ireland, 45, 98 
Tau Gross, 51 
Tauber river, 118 

Taxilii tribe, 36, 37, 121, 122, 124 

Thames, 48, 49 

Themis, or Thenew, 45 49 

Thunderbolt and Hook, 136, 137 

Tilbury, 85 

Tippera and Tipperary, 19, 36, 112 

Tlingit Indians, of America, 135, 

Tortoise, or Turtle, 14, 15, 59, 


Traprain Law, 45, 46, 130 
Tree, Sacred, 9, 43, 44, 50, 60, 

98, 99 

Tribes in early Britain, 36, 37, 121 
Trinity, Danava in Britain, 99, 

100; Hindu, 22, 43 
Troy, 117119, 126 
Tuatha dc Dannan, 108 
Tumuli, 11, in Brittany, 16 

Ugic river, 121 
Upanishads, 98 
Uthr Pendragon, 37, 105 

Varuna, an aditya, and the Ocean, 
| 75, 76 

Vasuki, King of the Serpents in the 

Netherworld, 27, 28, 79, 87, 

129, 136 

Vedas, 24, 113, 125 
Vigean, St., or Vidian, St., 89; 

Stone, 55 

Viking Ships, 39, 40 
Villages, Regulation of, 103 
Vishnu, 21, 22; Horse-headed One, 

127, 134; Incarnations of, 14, 

15, 59, 127 

Votan, Serpent deity, 34 36 
Vran, or Bran, 75 77 

Wain, Charles', or Arthur's ; 74 ; 

Sakata, 119 
Wales, 9, 22, 23, 102, 129; River 

Alan, 92, 93 


Warwickshire, 12, 55 

Wells, 16, 20, 52, 138; Macbeth's, 

92 ; St. Ca's, 10 ; St. Vidian's, 

89 ; Wine Well, 93 
Westminster Abbey, 17, 34, 71, 74 

White Island, The, 1315, 19, 23, 

WhitKorn, 80, 81 
Wiesbaden, 35, 110 
Wiltshire, 11, 12, 30, 138, 139 

Winchester, 21 

Worcestershire, 11, 93 

Word, The," (Speech), 96, 125 

Yama, god of Death, and an adit y a, 

"1618, 29, 58, 88, 139 
Toga, or Tog, 14, 135, 136, 139 
Yorkshire, 52, 53, 69, 76, 77, 98, 

Zimbabwe ruins, 59, 86